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NOTICE OF INCORPORATION 

United States Legal Document 

J^~ All citizens and residents are hereby advised that 

this is a legally binding document duly incorporated by 

reference and that failure to comply with such 

requirements as hereby detailed within may subject you 

to criminal or civil penalties under the law. Ignorance of 

the law shall not excuse noncompliance and it is the 

responsibility of the citizens to inform themselves as to 

the laws that are enacted in the United States of America 

and in the states and cities contained therein, "^k 

* * 
* 

ASME B31.5 (2001), Code for Pressure Piping, 
Section on Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer 
Components, 2004 Addenda, as required by the laws 
of the States of California and Wisconsin, et . alia 



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ASME CODE FOR PRESSURE PIPING, B31 
AN AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD 



ASME B3 1.5a 2004 
ADDENDA 

to 

ASME B31.5-2001 

REFRIGERATION PIPING 

AND HEAT TRANSFER 

COMPONENTS 



THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS 
Three Park Avenue • New York, NY 10016 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



Date of Issuance: May 30, 2005 
Mandatory Date: November 30, 2005 

This Addenda was approved by the American National Standards Institute 
and designated ASME B31.5a-2004 on November 8, 2004 



ASME is the registered trademark of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 



This code or standard was developed under procedures accredited as meeting the criteria for American 
National Standards. The Standards Committee that approved the code or standard was balanced to assure that 
individuals from competent and concerned interests have had an opportunity to participate. The proposed code 
or standard was made available for public review and comment that provides an opportunity for additional 
public input from industry, academia, regulatory agencies, and the public-at-large. 

ASME does not "approve," "rate," or "endorse" any item, construction, proprietary device, or activity. 

ASME does not take any position with respect to the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with 
any items mentioned in this document, and does not undertake to insure anyone utilizing a standard against 
liability for infringement of any applicable letters patent nor assume any such liability. Users of a code or 
standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of 
infringement of such rights, is entirely their own responsibility. 

Participation by federal agency representative(s) or person(s) affiliated with industry is not to be interpreted 
as government or industry endorsement of this code or standard. 

ASME accepts responsibility for only those interpretations of this document issued in accordance with the 
established ASME procedures and policies, which precludes the issuance of interpretations by individuals. 



No part of this document may be reproduced in any form, 

in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise, 

without the prior written permission of the publisher. 



The" American Society of Mechanical Engineers 
Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990 



Copyright © 2005 by 
THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS 

All rights reserved 
Printed in U.S.A. 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



SUMMARY OF CHANGES 



Addenda to ASME B3 1.5-2001 are issued in die form of replacement pages. Revisions, additions, or 
deletions are incorporated directly into the affected pages. It is advisable, however, that all replaced pages 
be retained for reference, 



Replace or insert the pages listed. Changes given below are identified on the pages by a margin note, A04, 
placed next to the affected area. Revisions introduced in ASME B3 1.5-2001 are indicated by (01). For the 
listing below, the Page references the affected area. A margin note, A04, placed next to the heading indicates 
Location. Revisions are listed under Change. 



Page 
v-vii. 
1-4.2 



11, 16, 17 



23 
31 
33 
48,49 



Location 


Contents 


500 


500.1 


500.1.2 


500.1.3(b) 


500.2 


Table 500.2 


Table 500.2.2 


Table 502.3.1 



504.3.1(b)(3) 
504.4.2 
505.1.1 
523.2.1 

523.2.2(f)(2) 
523.2.2(f)(5) 
523.2.2(f)(6) 



Change 

Updated io reflect Addenda 

In second paragraph, second sentence revised 

Introductory paragraph added 

Deleted 

Revised 

Definition for refrigerant and refrigerant 
mixtures revised 

Redesignated as Table 500.2.1 and revised in 
its entirety 

Added 

(1) Under Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube, entries 

added for Spec, Nos. ASTM A 53 and 
API 5L 

(2) Under Seamless Copper and Copper Alloy 

Pipe and Tube, first entry for Spec, No. 
ASTM B 280 revised and new second 
entry added 

Figure reference revised 

Figure reference revised 

Second paragraph revised 

Second sentence revised 

Revised 

Revised in its entirety 

Added 



(c) 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. ^C^ 

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. ^ 



Page 
51-53 



Location 
Table 523.1 



61-64 



527.4 

Fig. 527.3.6-A 

527.5 

528.2.4 



Change 

(1) Under Steel pipe, Specification for API 5L 

corrected by errata 

(2) Under Steel plate, Specifications for 

ASTM A 570 and A 611 corrected by 
errata to read ASTM A 1011 and 
A 1008, respectively 

(3) Note (1) revised 

Title and paragraph revised in its entirety 

General Note revised 

Title and paragraph revised in its entirety 

Revised 



(d) 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
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Chapter IV Dimensional Requirements (Cont'd) 

526. 3 Standard Piping Components 54 

526.2 Nonstandard Piping Components 54 

526.3 Threads 54 

Chapter V Fabrication and Assembly 

527 Welding 56 

527.1 Material 56 

527.2 Preparation 56 

527.3 Procedure 58 

527.4 Responsibility 61 

527.5 Qualification Records 63 

527.6 Defect Repairs 63 

528 Brazing and Soldering 63 

528.1 Brazing Materials 63 

528.2 Brazing Preparation and Procedures 63 

528.3 Soldering Materials 63 

528.4 Soldering Preparation and Procedure 64 

529 Bending — Hot and Cold 64 

529.1 Radii of Bends 64 

529.2 Procedure 64 

529.3 Heat Treatment 64 

530 Forming 64 

530.1 Procedure 64 

530.2 Heat Treatment 64 

531 Heat Treatment 64 

531.1 Heating and Cooling Method 64 

531.2 Preheating 64 

53 1 .3 Postheat Treatment 64 

535 Assembly 67 

535.1 General , 67 

535.2 Bolting Procedure 67 

535.3 Threaded Piping 67 

535.4 Welded joints 68 

535.5 Brazed Sleeve Joints 68 

535.6 Soldered Sleeve Joints 68 

535 .7 Flare Type Fitting Joints 68 

535.8 Flareless and Compression-Type Fitting Joints 68 

535.9 Assembly of Hangers 68 

Chapter VI Examination, Inspection, and Testing 

536 Examination 69 

536.1 Definition 69 

536.2 Responsibility 69 

536.3 Examination Personnel Qualification and Certification 69 

536.4 Required Examination 69 

536.5 Supplementary Examination 70 

536.6 Types of Examinations 70 

537 Inspection , 70 

537.1 Definition 70 

537.2 Responsibility 71 



A04 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction maybe made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



Chapter VI Examination, Inspection, and Testing (Cont'd) 

537.3 Rights of Inspectors 71 

537.4 Qualifications of the Owner's Inspector 71 

538 Testing , 71 

538. 1 Testing Before Erection or Assembly 71 

538.2 Preparation for Testing 71 

538.3 Factory Testing of Refrigerant Piping 71 

538.4 Field Testing of Refrigerant Piping 71 

538.5 Testing Medium for Refrigerant Piping 72 

538.6 Pressure Tests for Secondary Coolant Piping 72 

538.7 Pressure Gages 72 

538.8 Repair of Joints 72 

539 Records 72 

539.1 Definition 72 

539.2 Responsibility 72 

539.3 Extent and Retention of Records 72 

Nonmandatory Appendices 

A Referenced Standards 73 

B Preparation of Technical Inquiries 76 

Figures 

502.3.2 Stress Range Reduction Factors 22 

504,3.1 -A Reinforcement of Branch Connections 25 

504.3.1 -B Extruded Outlet Header Notation 27 

504,3. 1-C Mechanically Formed Tee Connections in Copper Materials 29 

504.5.3 Blanks 32 

519A5-A Bends 43 

519.4.5-B Branch Connections 44 

523.2.2 Reduction in Minimum Design Metal Temperature Without Impact 

Testing 53 

527.1.2 Typical Joints With Backing Ring 57 

527.2. 1-A Butt Welding End Preparation 57 

527.2. 1-B Internal Trimming for Butt Welding of Piping Components With Internal 

Misalignment 57 

527.3.3-A Fillet Weld Size 59 

527.3.3-B Welding Details for Slip-On and Socket Welding Flanges, and Some 

Acceptable Types of Flange Attachment Welds 59 

527.3.3-C Minimum Welding Dimensions Required for Socket Welding 

Components Other Than Flanges 60 

527.3. 5- A Typical Welded Branch Connection Without Additional Reinforcement 60 

527.3.5-B Typical Welded Branch Connection With Additional Reinforcement 60 

527.3.5-C Typical Welded Angular Branch Connection Without Additional 

Reinforcement 60 

527.3.5-D Some Acceptable Types of Welded Branch Attachment Details Showing 

Minimum Acceptable Welds 61 

527.3.6-A Acceptable Welds for Flat Plate Closures 62 

527.3.6-B Unacceptable Welds for Flat Plate Closures 62 

Tables 

500.2.1 Refrigerant Safety Classifications 4 

500.2.2 Safety Classifications for Refrigerant Blends 4.2 



A04 



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502.3.1 Maximum Allowable Stress Values, ksi 10 

51.9.3.1 Thermal Expansion Data (IP and SI) 38 

51.9.3.2 Moduli of Elasticity (IP and SI) 39 

519.3.6 Flexibility Factor k and Stress Intensification Factor i , 40 

521.3.1 Minimum Sizes of Straps, Rods, and Chains for Hangers 47 

523. 1 Acceptable Materials — Specifications 50 

523.2.2 Impact Exemption Temperatures 53 

526. 1 Dimensional Standards 55 

531.2.1 Heat Treatment of Welds 65 



A04 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 
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(01) 



FOREWORD 



The need for a national code for pressure piping 
became increasingly evident from 1915 to 1925. To 
meet this need, the American Engineering Standards 
Committee (later changed to American Standards Asso- 
ciation, then changed to United States of America 
Standards Institute, and now known as the American 
National Standards Institute) initiated project B31 in 
March 1926, at the request of the American Society 
of Mechanical Engineers and with that Society the 
sole administrative sponsor. Because of the wide field 
involved, Sectional Committee B3.1, later changed to 
Standards Committee, was composed of representatives 
of some 40 different engineering societies, industries, 
government bureaus, institutes, and trade associations. 
After several years work, the first edition was published 
in 1935 as an American Tentative Standard Code for 
Pressure Piping. 

In order to keep the Code abreast of current develop- 
ments in piping design, welding, stress computations, 
new dimensional and material standards and specifica- 
tions, and increases in the severity of service conditions, 
revisions, supplements, and new editions of the Code 
were published as follows: 
B 3 1.1- 1942 American Standard Code for Pressure 

Piping 
B31.1a-1944 Supplement 1 
B31.1b-1947 Supplement 2 
B 3 1.1-1951 American Standard Code for Pressure 

Piping 
B3 1.1 a- 1953 Supplement 1 to B3 1.1-1 951 
B3 1.1 -1955 American Standard Code for Pressure 

Piping 

In 1952, a new section of the Code was published 
to cover Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping 



Systems. In 1955, after a review by B31 Executive 
and Sectional Committees, a decision was made to 
develop and publish other industry sections as separate 
code documents of the American Standard Code for 
Pressure Piping. 

The first edition of Refrigeration Piping was published 
as ASA B31.5-1962 superseding Section 5 of B31.1- 
1955. This Section was revised in 1966. Following 
approval by the Sectional Committee and the sponsor, 
this revision was approved by the United States of 
America Standards Institute on September 8, 1966, and 
designated USAS B3 1.5- 1966. Revision of this Section 
was approved on April 18, 1974, by the American 
National Standards Institute and designated ANSI 
B3 1.5-1974. 

In December 1978, the American National Standards 
Committee B31 was reorganized as the ASME Code 
for Pressure Piping, B31. Committee under procedures 
developed by the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers and accredited by the American National 
Standards Institute, The Code designation was also 
changed to ANSI/ASME B31. 

Previous editions of this Code include those of 1983, 
1987, 1989, and 1992. The 2001 Edition of the Code 
is a compilation of the 1992 Edition and the B31.5a- 
1994 Addenda. 

In this, the 2001 Edition, the Scope of the Code 
has been expanded to include heat transfer components. 
Refrigerant design pressures and refrigerant classifica- 
tions in this Edition refer to ANSI/ASHRAE 15 and 34. 

This Code was approved as an American National 
Standard on August 15, 2001. 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.5a-2004 



500-500.2 



CHAPTER I 
SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS 



(01} 500 GENERAL STATEMENTS 

A04 

This Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Compo- 
nents Code is a Section of the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers Code for Pressure Piping, B3I. 
This Section is published as a separate document for 
simplicity and convenience of Code users. The users 
of this Code are advised that in some areas legislation 
may establish governmental jurisdiction over the subject 
matter covered by the Code. The owner of a complete 
piping installation shall have the overall responsibility 
for compliance with this Code. 

It is required that the engineering design specify any 
special requirements pertinent to the particular service 
involved. For example, the engineering design shall 
not for any service specify a weld quality lower than 
that stipulated in para. 527.3.2(d) for the Code-required 
visual examination quality and for the types of welds 
involved; but where service requirements necessitate 
added quality and more extensive nondestructive exami- 
nation, these are to be specified in the engineering 
design and any revision thereto, and when so specified, 
the Code requires that they be accomplished. 

A04 500.1 Scope 

Rules for this Code Section have been developed 
considering the needs for applications which include 
piping and heat transfer components for refrigerants 
and secondary coolants. 

(01) 500.1.1 This Code prescribes requirements for the 

materials, design, fabrication, assembly, erection, test, 
and inspection of refrigerant, heat transfer components, 
and secondary coolant piping for temperatures as low 
as ~320°F (™196°C), whether erected on the premises 
or factory assembled, except as specifically excluded 
in the following paragraphs. 

A04 500.1.2 DELETED 

500.1.3 This Code shall not apply to: 
(a) any self-contained or unit systems subject to 
the requirements of Underwriters Laboratories or other 
nationally recognized testing laboratory; 



(b) water piping, other than where water is used as 
a secondary coolant or refrigerant; 

(c) piping designed for external or internal gage 
pressure not exceeding 15 psi (105 kPa) regardless of 
size; or 

(d) pressure vessels, compressors, or pumps, but does 
include all connecting refrigerant and secondary coolant 
piping starting at the first joint adjacent to such appa- 
ratus. 

500.1.5 DELETED 



500.2 Definitions 

For convenience in reference, some of the more 
common terms relating to piping are defined in this 
subdivision. 

arc welding: a group of welding processes wherein 
coalescence is produced by heating with an electric 
arc(s), with or without the application of pressure and 
with or without the use of filler metal. 

automatic welding: welding with equipment that per- 
forms the entire welding operation without constant 
observation and adjustment of the controls by an opera- 
tor. The equipment may or may not perform the loading 
and unloading of the work. 

hacking ring: backing in the form of a ring generally 
used in the welding of piping. 

base metal: the metal to be welded, soldered, brazed, 
or cut. 

brazed joints: a joint obtained by the joining of metal 
parts with alloys that melt at temperatures higher than 
800°F (427°C), but less than the melting temperatures 
of the jointed parts. 

brine: a secondary coolant that is a solution of a salt 
and water. 

butt joint: a joint between two members lying approxi- 
mately in the same plane. 

compressor: a specific machine, with or without acces- 
sories, for compressing a given refrigerant vapor. 



A04 



(01) 



{01} 



(01) 



(01) 
A04 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



500.2 



ASME B31.5a-2004 



condenser: that part of a refrigerating system designed 
to liquify refrigerant vapor by the removal of heat. 

condenser coil: a condenser constructed of pipe or 
tube, not enclosed in a pressure vessel. 

design pressure: see para. 501. 

engineering design: the detailed design developed 
from process requirements and conforming to Code 
requirements, including all necessary drawings and spec- 
ifications, governing a piping installation. 

equipment connection: an integral part of such equip- 
ment as pressure vessels, heat exchangers, and pumps, 
designed for attachment to pipe or piping components. 

evaporator: that part of a refrigerating system de- 
signed to vaporize liquid refrigerant to produce refriger- 
ation. 

evaporator coil: an evaporator constructed of pipe or 
tube, not enclosed in a pressure vessel. 

face of weld: the exposed surface of a weld on the 
side from which the welding was done. 

filler metal: metal to be added in making a welded, 
brazed, or soldered joint. 

fillet weld: a weld of approximately triangular cross 
section joining two surfaces approximately at right 
angles to each other in a lap joint, tee joint, corner 
joint, or socket joint. 

full fillet weld: a fillet weld whose size is equal to 
the thickness of the thinner member joined. 

fusion: see weld. 

gas metal-arc welding (GMAW): an arc welding pro- 
cess wherein coalescence is produced by heating with 
an arc between a continuous filler metal (consumable) 
electrode and the work. Shielding is obtained entirely 
from an externally supplied gas or gas mixture. (Some 
methods of this process are called MIG or C0 2 welding.) 

gas tungsten-arc welding (GTAW): an arc welding 
process wherein coalescence is produced by heating 
with an arc between a single tungsten (nonconsumable) 
electrode and the work. Shielding is obtained from a 
gas or gas mixture. Pressure may or may not be added. 
(This process is sometimes called TIG welding.) 

gas welding: a group of welding processes wherein 
coalescence is produced by heating with a gas flame 
or flames, with or without the application of pressure, 
and with or without the use of filler metal. 



groove weld: a weld made in the groove between 
two members to be joined. 

header: a pipe or tube (extruded cast or fabricated) 
to which a number of other pipes or tubes are connected. 

heat affected zone: that portion of the base metal that 
has not been melted, but whose mechanical properties 
or microstructures have been altered by the heat of 
welding, brazing, or cutting. 

heat transfer component: the pressure containing por- 
tion of equipment used for heat transfer including pipes, 
tubes, coils, or other components and their headers not 
constructed as pressure vessels (see evaporator coil 
and condenser coil). 

heat treatment 

annealing, full: heating a metal to a temperature 
above a critical temperature and holding above that 
range for a proper period of time, followed by cooling 
to below that range. 

normalize: a process in which a ferrous metal is 
heated to a suitable temperature above the transforma- 
tion range and is subsequently cooled in still air at 
room temperature. 

stress -relief heat treatment: uniform heating of a 
structure or portion thereof to a sufficient temperature 
below the critical range to relieve the major portion 
of the residual stresses, followed by uniform cooling. 

high side: the parts of a refrigerating system subjected 
to condenser pressure. 

joint design: the joint geometry together with the 
required dimensions of the welded joint. 

joint penetration: the minimum depth a groove or 
flange weld extends from its face into a joint, exclusive 
of reinforcement. 

limited charge system: a system in which, with the 
compressor idle, the internal volume and total refrigerant 
charge are such that the design pressure will not be 
exceeded by complete evaporation of the refrigerant 
charge. 

low side: the parts of a refrigerating system subjected 
to evaporator pressure. 

manual welding: welding wherein the entire welding 
operation is performed and controlled by hand. 

mechanical joint: a joint obtained by joining of metal 
parts through a positive holding mechanical con- 
struction. 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASMK B3L5a-2004 



500.2 



miter joint: two or more straight sections of pipe 
matched and joined on a plane bisecting the angle or 
junction so as to produce a change in direction. 

pee ning: the mechanical working of metals by means 
of impact blows. 

pipe: a tubular component, usually cylindrical, used 
for conveying fluid and normally designated "pipe" in 
the applicable specification. It also includes similar 
components designated "tube." Types of welded pipe, 
according to the method of manufacture, are defined 
as follows: 

electric-flash welded pipe: pipe having a longitudi- 
nal butt joint wherein coalescence is produced, simulta- 
neously over the entire area of abutting surfaces, by 
the heat obtained from resistance to the flow of electric 
current between the two surfaces, and by the application 
of pressure after heating is substantially completed. 
Flashing and upsetting are accompanied by expulsion 
of metal from the joint. 

electric-fusion welded pipe: pipe having a longitudi- 
nal or spiral butt joint wherein coalescence is produced 
in the preformed tube by manual or automatic electric- 
arc welding. The weld may be single or double and 
may be made with or without the use of filler metal. 
Spiral welded pipe is also made by the electric-fusion 
welded process with either a lap joint or a lock- 
seam joint. 

electric-resistance welded pipe; pipe produced in 
individual lengths, or in continuous lengths from coiled 
skelp and subsequently cut into individual lengths, 
having a longitudinal or spiral butt joint wherein coales- 
cence is produced by the heat obtained from resistance 
of the pipe to the flow of electric current in a circuit 
of which the pipe is a part, and by the application of 
pressure. 

double submerged-arc welded pipe: pipe having a 
longitudinal butt joint produced by at least two passes, 
one of which is on the inside of the pipe. Coalescence 
is produced by heating with an electric arc or arcs 
between the bare metal electrode or electrodes and the 
work. The welding is shielded by a blanket of granular, 
fusible material on the work. Pressure is not used and 
filler metal for the inside and outside welds is obtained 
from the electrode or electrodes. 

furnace butt welded pipe, continuous welded: pipe 
produced in continuous lengths from coiled skelp and 
subsequently cut into individual lengths, having its 
longitudinal butt joint force welded by the mechanical 
pressure developed in rolling the hot-formed skelp 
through a set of round pass welding rolls. 



pipe supporting elements: elements that consist of 
fixtures and structural attachments. They do not include 
support structures and equipment, such as stanchions, 
towers, building frames, pressure vessels, mechanical 
equipment, and foundations. 

fixtures: elements that transfer the load from the 
pipe or structural attachment to the supporting structure 
or equipment. They include hanging type fixtures, such 
as hanger rods, spring hangers, sway braces, counter- 
weights, turnbuckles, struts, chains, guides, and anchors, 
and bearing type fixtures, such as saddles, bases, rollers, 
brackets, and sliding supports. 

structural attachments: elements that are welded, 
bolted, or clamped to the pipe, such as clips, lugs, 
rings, clamps, clevises, straps, and skirts. 

piping: the pipe and tube for interconnecting the 
various parts in a refrigeration system, which includes 
pipe, tube, flanges, bolting, gaskets, valves, and fittings; 
other pressure-containing parts, such as heat transfer 
components, expansion joints, strainers, and filters; de- 
vices that serve such purposes as mixing, separating, 
snubbing, distributing, metering, or controlling flow; 
and pipe supporting elements. 

postheating: the application of heat to an assembly 
after a welding, brazing, soldering, or cutting operation. 

preheating: the application of heat to the base metal 
immediately before a welding, brazing, soldering, or 
cutting operation. 

premises: the buildings and that part of the grounds 
of one property, where an installation would affect the 
safety of those buildings or adjacent property. 

pressure vessel: see Section VIII, Division 1, ASME 
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (hereinafter referred 
to as the ASME BPV Code). 

refrigerant and refrigerant mixtures: the fluid used 
for heat transfer in a refrigerating system that absorbs 
heat during evaporation at low temperature and pressure, 
and releases heat during condensation at a higher tem- 
perature and pressure. The safety classification group 
consists of two characters, e.g.. Al or B2. The capital 
letter indicates the toxicity and the Arabic numeral 
indicates the flammability, based on the following crite- 
ria (see Tables 500.2.1 and 500.2.2): 

Class A: refrigerants for which toxicity has not 
been identified at concentrations less than or equal to 
400 ppm (parts per million), based on data used to 
determine Threshold Limit Values-Time Weighted Av- 
erage (TLV-TWA) or consistent indices. 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



Table 500.2.1 



ASME B31.5a-2004 



A04 



TABLE 500.2.1 REFRIGERANT SAFETY CLASSIFICATIONS 



Refrigerant 
Number 



Chemical Name 



Chemical Formula 



Safety 
Group 



11 

12 

12B1 

13 

13B1 

14 

21 

22 

23 

30 

31 

32 

40 

41 

50 



113 

114 

115 

116 

123 

124 

125 

134a 

141b 

142b 

143a 

152a 

170 

E170 



218 
236fa 
245fa 
290 



Methane Series 
Trichlorofluoromethane 
Dichlorodifluoromethane 
Bromochlorodiflouromethane 

Chlorotrifluoromethane 

Bromotrifiuoromethane 

Tetrafluoromethane (carbon tetraflouride) 

Dichlorofluoromethane 

Chlorodifluoromethane 

Triflouremethane 

Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) 

Chloroflouro methane 

Difiouromethane (methylene flouride) 

Chloromethane (methyl chloride) 

Flouromethane (methyl flouride) 

Methane 

Ethane Series 

l/l^-Trichloro-l^^-trifluoroethane 

l^-Dichloro-l/l^^-tetrafluoroethane 

Chloropentafluoroethane 

Hexafiuoroethane 

2,2-Dichloro-l / l,l-trifluoroetriane 

2-Chioro-l, 1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane 

Pentafiuoroethane 

1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane 

1,1-Dichloro-l-fluoroethane 

1-Chloro-l, 1-Difluoroethane 

1,1,1-Trifluoroethane 

1,1-Difluoroethane 

Ethane 

Dimethyl ether 

Propane Series 

Octafluoropropane 

1,1/1, 3 7 3,3- Hexafluoropropane 

1, 1/1,3, 3-Pentafluoropropane 
Propane 



CCI 3 F 
CCI 2 F 2 

CBrCIF 2 

CC!F 3 

CBrF 3 

CF 4 

CHCI 2 F 

CHCIF 2 

CHF 3 

CH Z CI 2 

CH 2 CIF 

CH 2 F 2 

CH3CI 

CH 3 F 

CH 4 



CCI 2 FCCIF Z 

CCIF 2 CCIF 2 

CCIF 2 CF 3 

CF 3 CF 3 

CHCI 2 CF 3 

CHCIFCF3 

CHF 2 CF 3 

CH 2 FCF 3 

CH 3 CCI 2 F 

CH 3 CCIF 2 

CH3CF3 

CH3CHF2 

CH3CH3 

CH3OCH3 



CF 3 CF 2 CF 3 
CF 3 CH 2 CF 3 
CHF 2 CH 2 CF 3 
CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 



Al 

Al 
Note (l) 

Al 

Al 

Al 

Bl 

Al 

Al 

B2 
Note (1) 

A2 

B2 
Note (1) 

A3 



Al 
Al 
Al 
Al 
Bl 
Al 
Al 
Al 
Note (1) 
A2 
A2 
A2 
A3 
A3 



Al 
Al 
Bl 
A3 



C318 



Cyclic Organic Compounds 

Octafluorocyclobutane 



-<CF 2 ) 4 - 



Al 



Miscellaneous Organic Compounds 



600 
600a 



610 

611 



630 

631 



Hydrocarbons 

Butane 
Isobutane 

Oxygen Compounds 

Ethyl ether 
Methyl formate 

Nitrogen Compounds 

Methyl amine 
Ethyl amine 



CH3CH2CH2CH3 
CH(CH 3 ) 2 CH 3 



CH 3 CH 2 0CH 2 CH 3 
HC00CH 3 



CH 3 NH 2 
CH 3 CH 2 (NH 2 ) 



A3 


A3 


Note (1) 


B2 


Note (1) 


Note (1) 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.5a-2004 



500.2 



TABLE 500.2.1 REFRIGERANT SAFETY CLASSIFICATIONS (CONT'D) 



A04 



Refrigerant 
Number 



Chemical Name 



Chemical Formula 



Safety 
Group 



702 

704 

717 

718 

720 

728 

732 

740 

744 

744A 

764 



1150 
1270 



Inorganic Compounds 

Hydrogen 

Helium 

Ammonia 

Water 

Neon 

Nitrogen 

Oxygen 

Argon 

Carbon dioxide 

Nitrous oxide 

Sulfur dioxide 

Unsaturated Organic Compounds 

Ethene (ethylene) 
Propene (propylene) 



H 2 

He 

NH 3 

H 2 

Ne 

N 2 

2 

Ar 

C0 2 

N 2 

so 2 



CH 2 = CH 2 
CH 3 CH = CH 2 



A3 
Al 

B2 

Al 

Al 

Al 
Note (1) 

Al 

Al 
Note (1) 

Bl 



A3 
A3 



GENERAL NOTE: Refrigerant safety classifications per ANSI/ASHRAE 34-2001, addendum h, are shown here for convenience. More recent 

addenda may apply. 

NOTE: 

(1) No classification assigned as of this date. 



Class B: refrigerants for which there is evidence 
of toxicity at concentrations below 400 ppm, based on 
data used to determine TLV-TWA or consistent indices. 

Class I: refrigerants that do not show flame propa- 
gation when tested in air at 14.7 psia (100 kPa) and 
65°F (18°C). 

Class 2: refrigerants having a lower flammability 
limit (LFL) of more than 0.00625 lb/ft 3 (0.10 kg/m 3 ) 
at 70°F (21 °C) and 14.7 psia (100 kPa) and a heat of 
combustion of less than 8,174 Btu/lb (19 000 kJ/kg). 



Class 3: refrigerants that are highly flammable as 
defined by having an LFL of less than or equal to 
0.00625 lb/ft 3 (0.10 kg/m 3 ) at 70°F (21°C) and 14.7 
psia (100 kPa) or a heat of combustion greater than 
or equal to 8,174 Btu/lb (19 000 kJ/kg). 

refrigerating system: a combination of interconnecting 
refrigerant containing parts constituting a closed refriger- 
ant circuit in which a refrigerant is circulated for the 
purpose of extracting heat. 

reinforcement of weld: weld metal in excess of the 
specified weld size. 



4.1 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



Table 500,2.2 



ASME B31.5a-2004 



A04 



TABLE 500.2.2 SAFETY CLASSIFICATIONS 
FOR REFRIGERANT BLENDS 



Refrigerant 




Safety 


Number 


Composition (Mass %) 


Group 




Zeotropes 




400 


R-12/114 (must be specified) 


Al 


401A 


R-22/152a/124 (53/13/34) 


Al 


401B 


R-22/152a/124 (61/11/28) 


Al 


401C 


R~22/152a/124 (33/15/52) 


Al 


402A 


R-l 25/290/22 (60.0/2.0/38.0) 


Al 


402B 


R-125/290/22 (38.0/2.0/60.0) 


Al 


403A 


R-290/22/218 (5/75/20) 


Al 


403B 


R-290/22/218 (5/56/39) 


Al 


404A 


R-125/143a/134a (44/52/4) 


Al 


405A 


R-22/152a/142b/C318 (45/7/5.5/42.5) 


Note (1) 


406A 


R-22/600a/142b (55/4/41) 


A2 


407A 


R-32/125/134a (20/40/40) 


Al 


407B 


R-32/125/134a (10/70/20) 


Al 


407C 


R-32/125/134a (23/25/52) 


Al 


407D 


R-32/125/134a (15/15/70) 


Al 


407E 


R-32/125/134a (25/15/60) 


Al 


408A 


R-125/143a/22 (7/46/47) 


Al 


409A 


R-22/124/142b (60/25/15) 


Al 


409B 


R-22/124/142b (65/25/10) 


Al 


410A 


R-32/125 (50/50) 


Al 


41 OB 


R-32/125 (45/55) 


Al 


411A 


R-1270/22/152a (1.5/87.5/11.0) 


A2 


411B 


R-1270/22/152a (3/94/3) 


A2 


412A 


R-22/218/142b (70/5/25) 


A2 


413A 


R-218/134a/600a (9/88/3) 


A2 


414A 


R-22/124/600a/142b (51.0/28.5/4.0/16.5) 


Al 


414B 


R-22/124/600a/142b (50.0/39.0/1.5/9.5) 


Al 


415A 


R-22/152a (82.0/18.0) 


A2 


415B 


R-22/152a (25.0/75.0) 


A2 


416A 


R-134a/124/600 (59.0/39.5/1.5) 


Al 


417A 


R»125/134a/600 (46.6/50.0/3.4) 


Al 


418A 


R-290/22/152a (1.5/96.0/2,5) 


A2 


419A 


R-125/134a/E170 (77.0/19.0/4.0) 
Azeotropes 


A2 


500 


R-12/152a (73.8/26.2) 


Al 


501 


R-22/12 (75.0/25.0) 


Al 


502 


R-22/115 (48.8/51.2) 


Al 


503 


R-23/13 (40.1/59.9) 


Note (1) 


504 


R-32/115 (48.2/51.8) 


Note (1) 


505 


R-12/31 (78.0/22.0) 


Note (1) 


506 


R-31/114 (55.1/44.9) 


Note (1) 


507A 


R-125/143a (50/50) 


Al 


508A 


R-23/116 (39/61) 


Al 


508B 


R-23/116 (46/54) 


Al 


509A 


R-22/218 (44/56) 


Al 



GENERAL NOTE: Safety classifications for refrigerant blends per 

ANSI/ASHRAE 34-2001, addendum h, are shown here for 

convenience. More recent addenda may apply. 

NOTE: 

(1) No classification assigned as of this date. 



4.2 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.5a-2004 Table 5023.1 

TABLE 502.3.1 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESS VALUES, ksi (oi) 

Multiply by 1,000 to Obtain psi A04 







For Metal Temperatui 


res, °F, 


Not Exceeding 








-20 to 100 


150 


200 


250 


300 


350 


400 


Spec. No. 














Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube 


12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


ASTM A 53 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


ASTM A 53 


12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


ASTM A 106 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


ASTM A 106 


17.5 


17.5 


17.5 


17.5 


17.5 


17.5 


17.5 


ASTM A 106 


11.8 


11.8 


11.8 


11.8 


11.8 


11.8 


11.8 


ASTM A 179 


11.8 


11.8 


11.8 


11.8 


11.8 


11.8 


11.8 


ASTM A 192 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


ASTM A 210 


13.8 


13.8 


13.8 


13.8 


13.8 


13.8 


13.8 


ASTM A 333 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


ASTM A 333 


13.8 


13.8 


13.8 


13.8 


13.8 


13.8 


13.8 


ASTM A 334 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


ASTM A 334 


12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


API 5L 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


15.0 


API 5L 



Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube 



6.7 


6.7 


6.7 


6.7 


6.7 


6.7 


6.7 


ASTM A 53 


6.7 


6.7 


6.7 


6.7 


6.7 


6.7 


6.7 


API 5L 



Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube 
Electric Resistance Welded Pipe and Tube 



10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


ASTM A 53 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


ASTM A 53 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


ASTM A 135 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


ASTM A 135 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


ASTM A 178 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


ASTM A 178 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


ASTM A 214 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


ASTM A 226 


11.7 


11.7 


11.7 


11.7 


11.7 


11.7 


11.7 


ASTM A 333 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


ASTM A 333 


11.7 


11.7 


11.7 


11.7 


11.7 


11.7 


11.7 


ASTM A 334 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


12.7 


12.7 


ASTM A 334 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


ASTM A 587 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


10.2 


API 5L 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


12.8 


API 5L 



Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube 
Electric Fusion Welded Pipe 

8.3 ... 8.3 ... 8.3 ... ... ASTM A 134 

9.2 ... 9.2 ... 9.2 ... ... ASTM A 134 

10.1 .. . 10.1 . . . 10.1 ... ... ASTM A 134 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



Table 502.3.1 



ASME B31.5a-2004 



(01) TABLE 502.3.1 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESS VALUES, ksi (CONT'D) 

Multiply by 1,000 to Obtain psi 



Material 



Spec. No. 





Min. Temp., 


Min. Tensile 


Min. Yield 


Longitudinal or 


Grade, Type, 


°F 


Strength, 


Strength, 


Spiral Joint 


or Class 


[(1) & (2)] 


ksi (3) 


ksi (3) 


Factor 



Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube 
Electric Fusion Welded Pipe (Cont'd) 



Steel Pipe 
[Note (4)] 



ASTM A 134 



A 283 
Gr. D 



60.0 



33.0 



0.80 



Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube 
Copper Brazed Tubing 



Steel tube 



ASTM A 254 



42,0 



25.0 



Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel Pipe and Tube 
Seamless Alloy Steel Pipe and Tube 



3V 2 Ni pipe 
Cr-Cu-Ni-AI pipe 
2 V 2 N i pipe 
2Ni pipe 


ASTM A 333 
ASTM A 333 
ASTM A 333 
ASTM A 333 


3 
4 
7 
9 


3V 2 Nt tube 
2 1 / 2 Ni tube 
2Mi tube 


ASTM A 334 
ASTM A 334 
ASTM A 334 


3 
7 

9 



150 


65.0 


35.0 


150 


60.0 


35.0 


100 


65.0 


35.0 


100 


63.0 


46.0 


150 


65.0 


35.0 


100 


65.0 


35.0 


100 


63.0 


46.0 



Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel Pipe and Tube 
Electric Resistance Welded Pipe and Tube 



3 1 / 2 Ni pipe 
2 V 2 N i pipe 

2Ni pipe 

3V 2 Ni tube 
2 V 2 N i tube 



ASTM A 333 
ASTM A 333 
ASTM A 333 

ASTM A 334 
ASTM A 334 



150 


65.0 


35.0 


0.85 


100 


65.0 


35.0 


0.85 


100 


63.0 


46.0 


0.85 


150 


65.0 


35.0 


0.85 


100 


65.0 


35.0 


0.85 



Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe and Tube 
Seamless Pipe and Tube 



18-8 tube 


ASTM A 213 


TP304 


-425 


75.0 


30.0 


18-8 tube 


ASTM A 213 


TP304L 


-425 


70.0 


25.0 


18-8 pipe 


ASTM A 312 


TP304 


-425 


75.0 


30.0 


18-8 pipe 


ASTM A 312 


TP304L 


-425 


70.0 


25.0 


18-8 pipe 


ASTM A 376 


TP304 


-425 


75.0 


30.0 


18-8 pipe 


ASTM A 376 


TP304 


-425 


70.0 


30.0 



Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe and Tube 
Welded Pipe and Tube 



18-8 tube 


ASTM A 249 


TP304 


-425 


75.0 


30.0 


0.85 


18-8 tube 


ASTM A 249 


TP304L 


-425 


70.0 


25.0 


0.85 


18-8 pipe 


ASTM A 312 


TP304 


-425 


75.0 


30.0 


0.85 


18-8 pipe 


ASTM A 312 


TP304L 


-425 


70.0 


25.0 


0.85 



12 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.5a-2004 



Table 502.3.1 



100 



TABLE 5023.1 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESS VALUES, ksi (CONT'D) (oi) 

Multiply by 1,000 to Obtain psi A04 



150 



For Metal Temperatures, °F / Not Exceeding 



200 



250 



300 



350 



400 



Spec. No. 



6.0 



5.1 



4.8 



4.8 



Seamless Copper and Copper Alloy Pipe and Tube 

4.0 3.0 ASTJVi B 42 



11.3 



11.3 



11.3 



11.3 



11.0 



10.3 



4.3 



ASTM B 42 



9.0 



9.0 



9.0 



9.0 



8.7 



8.5 



8.2 



ASTM B 42 



8.0 


8.0 


8.0 


8.0 


8.0 


7.0 


5.0 


ASTM B 43 


6.0 


5.1 


4.8 


4.8 


4.7 


4.0 


3.0 


ASTM B 68 



6.0 



5.1 



4.8 



4.7 



4.0 



3.0 



ASTM B 75 



9.0 



ASTM B 75 



11.3 



11.3 



11.3 



11.3 



11.0 



10.3 



4.3 



ASTM B 75 



9.0 



9.0 



9.0 



9.0 



ASTM 



6.0 



5.1 



4.8 



4.7 



4.0 



3.0 



ASTM B 88 



9.0 



9.0 



9.0 



9.0 



8.5 



ASTM B 111 



11.3 



11.3 



11.3 



11.3 



11.0 



10.3 



4.3 



ASTM B 111 



7,5 


7.0 


6.7 


6.5 


6.1 


8.0 


8.0 


8.0 


8.0 


8.0 



7.0 



5.0 



ASTM B 111 
ASTM B 111 



15 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. dS . 

No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. ^^ 



Table 502.3.1 



ASME B31.5a-2004 



(01) 
A04 



TABLE 502.3.1 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESS VALUES, ksi (CONT'D) 
Multiply by 1,000 to Obtain psi 



Material 



Spec, No. 



NPS 



Copper or 

Copper 

Ailoy No, 



Temper 



Min, Tensile Min. Yield 

Strength, Strength, 

ksi (3) ksi (3) 



Seamless Copper and Copper Ailoy Pipe and Tube (Cont'd) 

Muntz metal condenser tube ASTM B 111 Up to 3% 

Admiralty metal condenser tube ASTM B 111 Up to 3% 



Aluminum bronze condenser 
tube 



ASTM B 111 Up to 3/ 



Aluminum brass condenser tube ASTM B 111 Up to 3% 
95Cu-5Ni condenser tube ASTM B 111 Up to 3% 

95Cu-5Ni condenser tube ASTM B 111 Upto3V 8 



90Cu-10Ni condenser tube 
80Cu-20Ni condenser tube 
70Cu-30Ni condenser tube 

Copper tube 
Copper tube 



Copper silicon A pipe 
90Cu-10Ni pipe 
70Cu-30Ni pipe 



ASTM B 111 Up to 3% 

ASTM B 111 Up to 3% 

ASTM B 111 Up to 3% 

ASTM B 280 Up to 1% 

ASTM B 280 Up to 4% 



ASTM B 315 Up to 12 
ASTM B 466 Up to 6 
ASTM B 466 Up to 6 



Welded Copper and Copper Alloy Pipe and Tube 



90Cu-10Ni pipe and tube [(6)J 
90Cu-10Ni pipe and tube CC6)] 
70Cu-30Ni pipe and tube [(6)1 
70Cu-30Ni pipe and tube [(6)1 
70Cu~30Ni pipe and tube [(6)3 

Copper tube [Note (6)] 
Copper alloy tube [Note (6)1 
Copper alloy tube [Note (6).l 
Red brass tube [Note (6)3 
Red brass tube [Note (6)] 

Admiralty metal tube 
[Note (6)] 



Aluminum brass tube [(6)] 
95Cu-5Ni tube [Note (6)] 
90Cu-10Ni [Note (6)1 
90Cu-10Ni [Note (6)1 
70Cu-30Ni [Note (6)3 



ASTM B 467 
ASTM B 467 
ASTM B 467 
ASTM B 467 
ASTM B 467 

ASTM B 543 
ASTM B 543 
ASTM B 543 
ASTM B 543 
ASTM B 543 



Up to 4V 2 incl. 
Over 4V 2 
Up to 4V 2 incl. 
Over 4V 2 
Up to 2 

Up to 3V 2 
Up to 3% 
Up to 3% 
Up to 3% 
Up to 3V S 



ASTM B 543 Up to 3% 



ASTM B 543 
ASTM B 543 
ASTM B 543 
ASTM B 543 
ASTM B 543 



Up to 3% 
Up to 3% 
Up to 3% 
Up to 3\ 
Up to 3V 8 



C28000 


Annealed (061) 


50.0 


20.0 


C44300 


Annealed (061) 


45.0 


15.0 


C44400 








C44500 








C60800 


Annealed (061) 


50.0 


19.0 


C68700 


Annealed (061) 


50.0 


18.0 


C70400 


Annealed (061) 


38.0 


12.0 


C70400 


Light drawn (H55) 


40.0 


30.0 


C70600 


Annealed (061) 


40.0 


15.0 


C71000 


Annealed (061) 


45.0 


16.0 


C71500 


Annealed (061) 


52.0 


18.0 


C12200 


Soft anneal (060) 


30.0 


9.0 


C12200 


Drawn gerneral purpose 
(H5B) 


36.0 


30.0 


C65500 


Annealed (061) 


50.0 


15.0 


C70600 


Soft anneal (060) 


38.0 


13.0 


C71500 


Soft anneal (060) 


52.0 


18.0 



C70600 Welded and annealed (W061) 40.0 

C70600 Welded and annealed (W061) 38.0 

C71500 Welded and annealed (W061) 50.0 

C71500 Welded and annealed (W061) 45.0 

C71500 Welded, drawn, and tempered 72.0 

C12200 Light cold worked (WC55) 32.0 

C19400 Annealed (W061) 45.0 

C19400 Light cold worked (WC55) 45.0 

C23000 Annealed (W061) 40.0 

C23000 Light cold worked (WC55) 42.0 

C44300 Annealed (W061) 45.0 

C44400 

C44500 

C68700 Annealed (W061) 50.0 

C70400 Annealed (W061) 38.0 

C70600 Annealed (W061) 40.0 

C70600 Light cold worked (WC55) 45.0 

C71500 Annealed (W061) 52,0 



15.0 
13.0 
20.0 
15.0 
50.0 

15.0 
15,0 
22.0 
12.0 
20.0 

15.0 



18.0 
12.0 
15.0 
35.0 
18.0 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B3.1.5a-2004 



Fable 502.3.1 



100 



TABLE 502.3.1 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESS VALUES, ksi (CONT'D) (01) 

Multiply by 1,000 to Obtain psi A04 



150 



For Metai Temperatures, °F, Not Exceeding 



200 



250 



300 



350 



400 



Spec. No. 



12.5 

10.0 



12.5 
10.0 



12.5 
10.0 



12.5 

10.0 



Seamless Copper and Copper Ailoy Pipe and Tube (Cont'd) 

12.5 10.8 5.3 ASTM B 111 

10.0 9.8 3.5 ASTM B 111 



12.5 


12.4 


12.2 


11.9 


11.6 


10.0 


6.0 


ASTM 


B 111 


12.0 


11.9 


11.8 


11.7 


11.7 


6.5 


3.3 


ASTM 


B 111 


8.0 


8.0 












ASTM 


B 111 


10.0 


10.0 












ASTM 


B 111 


10.0 


9.7 


9.5 


9.3 


9.0 


8.7 


8.5 


ASTM 


B 111 


10.7 


10.6 


10.5 


10.4 


10.3 


10.1 


9.9 


ASTM 


B 111 


12.0 


11.6 


11.3 


11.0 


10.8 


10.6 


10.3 


ASTM 


B 111 


6.0 


5.1 


4.8 


4.8 


4.7 


4.0 


3.0 


ASTM 


B 280 


9.0 


9.0 


9.0 


9.0 


8.7 


8.5 


8.2 


ASTM 


B 280 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


5.0 


5.0 


ASTM 


B 315 


8.7 


8.4 


8.3 


8.0 


7.8 


7.7 


7.6 


ASTM 


B 466 


12.0 


11.6 


11.3 


11.0 


10.8 


10.6 


10.3 


ASTM 


B 466 



Welded Copper and Copper Alloy Pipe and Tube 



8.5 


8.2 


8.1 


7.9 


7.6 


7.4 


7.2 


ASTM 


B 467 


7.4 


7.1 


7.1 


6.8 


6.6 


6.5 


6.5 


ASTM 


B 467 


10.6 


9.6 


8.9 


8.8 


8.8 


8.8 


8.8 


ASTM 


B 467 


8.5 


8.2 


8.0 


7.8 


7.7 


7.5 


7.3 


ASTM 


B 467 


15.3 


15.3 


15.3 


15.3 


15.3 


14.9 


14.7 


ASTM 


B 467 


5.1 


4.3 


4.1 


4.0 


4.0 


3.4 


2.5 


ASTM 


B 543 


8.5 


8.5 


8.3 


8.1 


7.8 


7.3 


6.0 


ASTM 


B 543 


8.5 


8.5 


8.3 


8.1 


7.8 


7.3 


6.0 


ASTM 


B 543 


6.8 


6.8 


6.8 


6.8 


6.8 


5.9 


4.2 


ASTM 


B 543 


6.8 


6.8 


6.8 


6.8 


6.8 


5.9 


4.2 


ASTM 


B 543 


8.5 


8.5 


8.5 


8.5 


8.5 


8.3 


3.0 


ASTM 


B 543 



10.2 


10.1 


10.0 


9.9 


9.9 


5.5 


2.7 


ASTM B 543 


6.8 


6.8 












ASTM B 543 


8.5 


8.2 


8.1 


7.9 


7.6 


7.4 


7.2 


ASTM B 543 


8.5 


8.2 


8.1 


7.9 


7.6 


7.4 


7.2 


ASTM B 543 


10.2 


9.9 


9.6 


9.3 


9.2 


9.0 


8.8 


ASTM B 543 



17 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society 7 of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



Table 502.3.1 



ASME B31.5a-2004 



(01) 
A04 



TABLE 502.3.1 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE STRESS VALUES, ksi (CONT'D) 
Multiply by 1,000 to Obtain psi 



Material 



Spec. No. 



NPS 



Copper or 

Copper 

Alloy No. 



Temper 



Min. Tensile Min. Yield 

Strength, Strength, 

ksi (3) ksi (3) 



Welded Copper and Copper Alloy Pipe and Tube (Cont'd) 

Copper tube ASTM B 743 



Copper tube 



ASTM B 743 



Seamless Nickel Base Alloy Pipe and Tube 



Nickel and copper pipe 
Nickel and copper pipe 
Seamless Aluminum Base Alloy Pipe and Tube 



ASTM B 165 5 O.D. and 

under 
ASTM B 165 Over 5 O.D. 



C10200 
C10300 
C10800 
C12000 
C12200 

C1Q200 
C10300 
C10800 
C12000 
C12200 



!\l 04400 Annealed 
N04400 Annealed 



Drawn general purpose (H58) 



Light anneal; soft anneal 
(050, 060) 



3003 tube 


ASTM B 210 





3003 tube [Note (7)3 


ASTM B 210 


H14 


6063 tube [Note (8)] 


ASTM B 210 


T6 


6063 tube 


ASTM B 210 


T6 welded 


6061 tube [Note (8)] 


ASTM B 210 


T4 


6061 tube [Note (8)3 


ASTM B 210 


T6 


6061 tube 


ASTM B 210 


T6 welded 


6061 tube [.Note (8)"J 


ASTM B 234 


T4 


6061 tube [Note (8)] 


ASTM B 234 


T6 


6061 tube 


ASTM B 234 


T6 welded 


3003 tube or pipe 


ASTM B 241 





3003 pipe [Note (7)] 


ASTM B 241 Under 1 


H18 


3003 pipe [Note (7)] 


ASTM B 241 1 and over 


H112 


5083 tube 


ASTM B 241 





6063 tube [Note (8)] 


ASTM B 241 <0.500 


T5 


6063 tube [Note (8)] 


ASTM B 241 


T6 


6061 tube [Note (8)] 


ASTM B 241 


T4 


6061 pipe [Note (8).l 


ASTM B 241 1 and over 


T6 


6061 pipe 


ASTM B 241 


T6 welded 



36.0 



30.0 



70.0 
70.0 



30.0 



28.0 
25.0 



14.0 


5.0 


20.0 


17.0 


33.0 


28.0 


17.0 




30.0 


16.0 


42.0 


35.0 


24.0 




30.0 


16.0 


42.0 


35.0 


24.0 




14.0 


5.0 


27.0 


24.0 


14.0 


5.0 


39.0 


16.0 


22.0 


16.0 


30.0 


25.0 


26.0 


16.0 


38.0 


35.0 


24.0 





Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.5a-2004 



504.2-504.3.1 



504.2 Curved Segments of Pipe 

504.2.1 Pipe Bends. Pipe after bending shall conform 
to the following. 

(a) The minimum thickness after bending shall not 
be less than as required for straight pipe in accordance 
with para. 504. L 

(b) The difference between maximum and minimum 
diameters for pipe bends subjected to internal pressure 
should not exceed 8% of the nominal outside diameter 
of the pipe. 

(c) The difference between maximum and minimum 
diameters for pipe bends subjected to external pressure 
should not be greater than 8% of the nominal outside 
diameter of the pipe. 

(d) Bends made with greater flattening than indicated 
above shall meet the requirements of para. 504.7. 

(01) (e) Bends for use on heat transfer components such 

as U-Bends (return bends) shall be designed in accor- 
dance with the requirements of para. 504.3 and/or para. 
504.7. 

504.2.2 Elbows. Elbows manufactured in accordance 
with the standards listed in Table 526.1 shall be consid- 
ered suitable for use at the pressure-temperature ratings 
specified by such standards, and in the case of standards 
under which elbows are made to a nominal pipe thick- 
ness, the elbows shall be considered suitable for use 
with pipe of the same nominal thickness unless other- 
wise stated by the fittings standard. Commercially manu- 
factured elbows not made in accordance with the stan- 
dards listed in Table 526.1 shall meet the requirements 
of para. 504.7. 

504.3 Intersections 

504.3.1 Branch Connections 

(a) This paragraph gives rules governing the design 
of branch connections to sustain internal and external 
pressure in cases where the angle between the axes of 
the branch and of the run is between 45 deg and 90 deg. 

Branch connections in which the smaller angle be- 
tween the axes of the branch and the run is less than 
45 deg impose special design and fabrication problems; 
the rules given for angles greater than 45 deg may be 
used as a guide, but sufficient additional strength must 
be provided to assure safe and satisfactory service, and 
these branch connections shall be designed to meet the 
requirement of para. 504.7. 

(b) Branch connections in piping may be made by 
the use of: 

(1) fittings (tees, laterals, crosses, and multiple 



opening headers, qualified as fully reinforced in accor- 
dance with para. 504.7); 

(2) welding outlet fittings, such as forged nozzles, (01) 
couplings [maximum NPS 3 (DN 75)], or adaptors or 
similar items having butt welding, socket welding, 
threaded, or flanged ends for attachment of the branch 
pipe, such welding outlet fittings being attached to the 
main pipe by welding; or 

(3) by attaching the branch pipe directly to the A04 
run pipe by welding (acceptable methods of making 
welded pipe-to-pipe branch connections are contained 

in para. 527.3.5) or by threading. 

(c) Right angle branch connections may be made 
by attaching the branch pipe directly to the run pipe 
by socket welding provided: 

(1) the nominal size of the branch does not exceed (01) 
NPS 2 (DN 50) or one-fourth the nominal size of the 
run, whichever is lesser; 

(2) the depth of the socket in the run is at least (01) 
% in. (10 mm) deep with a minimum shoulder or Vig 

in. (1.5 mm) between the bottom of the socket and 
the inside diameter of the run pipe. [Weld metal may 
be deposited on the run pipe to provide the required 
socket depth and to provide any reinforcement required 
by (d) and (e) below.] 

(3) the size of the fillet weld is not less than 1.25 
times the nominal branch wall thickness. 

(d) Right angle branch connections may be made 
by threading the branch pipe directly to the run pipe 
provided: 

(1) the nominal size of the branch does not exceed (01) 
NPS 2 (DN 50) or one-fourth the nominal size of the 
run, whichever is lesser; and 

(2) minimum thread engagement is 6 full threads (01) 
for NPS V 2 (DN 15) and NPS % (DN 20) branches, 

7 for NPS 1 (DN 25) and NPS 1 1 / 2 (DN 40) branches, 
and 8 for NPS 2 (DN 50) branches. [Weld metal may 
be deposited on the run to provide sufficient thickness 
for the required thread engagement and to provide any 
reinforcement required by paras. 504.3.1(d) and (e). In 
interpreting paras. 504.3.1(d) and (e) for connections 
threaded directly into the run pipe, no part of the 
branch pipe may be counted in calculating the reinforce- 
ment area, and the value of d\ shall be taken as the 
nominal outside diameter of the branch pipe.] 

(e) A pipe having a branch connection is weakened 
by the opening that must be made in it, and unless 
the wall thickness of the pipe is sufficiently in excess 
of that required to sustain the pressure, it is necessary 
to provide reinforcement. The amount of reinforcement 
required shall be determined in accordance with paras. 



23 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



504.3.1 



ASME B31.5a-2004 



504.3.1(d) and (e). There are, however, certain branch 
connections for which no supporting calculations are 
required. It may be assumed without calculation that 
a branch connection has adequate strength to sustain 
the internal and external pressure that will be applied 
to it if: 

(J) the branch connection is made by the use of 
a fitting (tee, lateral or cross) manufactured in accor- 
dance with a standard listed in Table 526.1 and used 
within the limits of pressure-temperature ratings given 
in the standard. (A butt welding fitting made in accor- 
dance with ASME B 16.9 shall be of a nominal thickness 
not less than the nominal thickness required for the 
adjoining pipe.) 
(01) (2) the branch connection is made by welding a 

threaded or socket welding coupling or half coupling 
directly to the main pipe using an appropriate type of 
minimum size weld (see Chapter V) and the nominal 
diameter of the branch does not exceed DN 50 (NFS 
2) pipe size and does not exceed one-fourth the nominal 
diameter of the run. The minimum wall thickness of 
the coupling anywhere in the reinforcement zone shall 
be not less than that of the branch pipe, and in no 
case shall the coupling have a rating less than Class 
3000 per ASME 16.11. 

(3) the branch connection is made by welding a 
threaded, socket, or butt weld outlet integrally reinforced 
branch connection fitting to the main pipe, provided 
the fitting is made from materials in accordance with 
Table 523.1 and provided the fitting has demonstrated 
by full-scale internal pressure destructive tests that the 
branch fitting is as strong as the main or branch pipe. 
See para. 504.7. 

(f) Reinforcement of Welded Branch Connections. 
Additional reinforcement is required when it is not 
provided inherently in the components of the branch 
connection. This subparagraph gives rules governing 
the design of branch connections to sustain internal 
pressure in cases where the angle between the axes of 
the branch and of the run is between 45 deg and 90 deg. 
(01) (/) Notation. The notations described below are 

used in the pressure design of branch connections. The 
notations are illustrated in Fig. 504.3. 1-A. Note the 
use of subscripts h for branch and h for header. Note 
also that Fig. 504.3. 1-A does not indicate details of 
construction or welding. 

C = corrosion allowance, in. (mm) 

T = actual thickness of pipe, in. (mm), by actual 
measurement, or minimum thickness permissi- 
ble under purchase specification 

f = nominal thickness of pipe, in. (mm) 

b = subscript referring to branch 



Do 
L 4 



d ] = 



d, = 



h = subscript referring to run or header 
t — pressure design thickness of pipe, in. (mm), 
according to the appropriate wall thickness 
equation or procedure in para. 504.1. When 
the branch does not intersect the longitudinal 
weld of the run, use S from para. 502.3.1 
and Table 502.-3.1, not SE, in determining t 
for the puipose of reinforcement calculation 
only. The allowable stress SE of the branch 
shall be used in calculating t b . 
angle between axes of branch and run, deg 
outside diameter of pipe, in. (mm) 
height of reinforcement zone outside of run 
pipe, in, (mm) 

2.5 (T h - C) or 2.5 (T h - C) + t n whichever 
is lesser 

actual corroded length removed from run pipe, 
in. (mm) 

[D b - 2 (T t - Q] / sin p 
half- width of reinforcement zone, in. (mm) 

— d\ or [(T b - C) + (T h - Q + d\/2], whichever 
is greater, but in any case not more than DJi 

t r — nominal thickness or reinforcing ring or saddle 
in. (mm) 

— 0, if there is no reinforcement pad or saddle 

(2) Required Area A x 

(a) For Internal Pressure. The quantity t b d x (2 
- sin p) is known as the required area; in the case 
of right angle nozzles, the required area becomes t h d\ 
sq in. (sq mm). The branch connection must be designed 
so that reinforcement area defined in (3) below is not 
less than the required area. 

(b) For External Pressure. The reinforcement 
area required for the branch connections subject to 
external pressure need be only 0.5 t h d\ (2 - sin (3). 

(3) Reinforcement Area. The reinforcement area 
shall be the sum of areas A 2 + A 3 + A 4 and shall not 
be less than the required area. 

(a) Areas A^ and A 3 . The area lying within the 
reinforcement zone [defined in (f)(4) below] resulting 
from any excess thickness available in the main run 
pipe wall (A2) and branch pipe wall (A3) over that 
required by the proper wall thickness equations, i.e., 
the thickness T h - t h - C and T b - t b ~ C multiplied 
by appropriate lengths, i.e., 



A 2 = {ld 1 ~d l )(T h ~t h -Q 
A 3 - [2L 4 (T b -t b -Q]/ sin (3 



(4) 
(5) 



(01) 



(b) Area A 4 . The area of all other metal within 
the reinforcement zone [defined in (f)(4) below] pro- 



24 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.5a-2004 



504.4.2-504.5.3 



(01) 504.4.2 Flat Plate Closures. The minimum required 
A04 thickness t m for a flat plate closure (shown in Fig. 

5 27. 3. 6- A) shall be determined in accordance with 

Eq. (11). 



(01) 



= d JCP/S + c 



(11) 



where 

C = 

P = 

s = 

c = 

d = 

t r - 

ts = 



0.33 [t,./(t s - c)] but not less than 0.20 

as defined in para. 504.4.1(b) 

as defined in para. 504.4.1(b) 

as defined in para. 504.4.1(b) 

inside diameter of pipe, in, (mm) 

required or calculated thickness of pipe wall, 

in. (mm) 

actual or measured thickness of pipe wall, 

exclusive of corrosion allowance, in. (mm) 



504.5 Pressure Design of Flanges and Blanks 

504.5.1 General 

(a) Flanges manufactured in accordance with, the 
standards listed in Table 526.1 shall be considered 
suitable for use at the pressure-temperature ratings 
specified by such standards. Flanges not made in accor- 
dance with the standards listed in Table 526.1 shall 
be designed in accordance with Section VIII, Division 
1, of the ASME BPV Code except that the requirements 
for fabrication, assembly, inspection, and testing, and 
the pressure and temperature limits for materials of 
this Code shall govern. Also, certain notations used in 
the ASME BPV Code, namely, P, S a , S bt and S f shall 
have the meanings described in this paragraph instead 
of those given in the ASME BPV Code, All other 
notations shall be as defined in the ASME BPV Code, 

P — internal design gage pressure (see para. 
501.2.2), psi (kPa). (Flanges subject to external 
pressure should be designed for an internal 
pressure equal to the external design pressure.) 

S a = bolt design stress, ksi (MPa), at 100°F (38°C) 
(from Section VIII, Division 1, of the ASME 
BPV Code) 

Si, = bolt design stress, ksi (MPa), at design temper- 
ature (from Section VIII, Division 1, of the 
ASME BPV Code) 

S f = allowable stress, ksi (MPa), for flange material 
or pipe (from para. 502.3.1 and Table 502.3.1) 

(b) The flange design rules presented in (a) above 
are not applicable to designs employing flat faced 
flanges used with full-face gaskets that extend beyond 



the bolts, usually to the outside diameter of the flange. 
The forces and reactions in such a joint are very 
different from those found on ring-gasketed joints, and 
the flange should be designed to meet the requirements 
of para. 504.7. 

504.5.2 Blind Flanges. Blind flanges manufactured 
in accordance with the standards listed in Table 526.1 
shall be considered suitable for use at the pressure- 
temperature ratings specified by such standards. 

(a) The required thickness of blind flanges not manu- 
factured in accordance with standards in Table 526.1 
shall be calculated in accordance with Eq. (12), consider- 
ing pressure and mechanical, corrosion, and erosion 
allowances. The minimum thickness for the blind flange 
selected, considering manufacturer's minus tolerance, 
shall not be less than t m . 



t. m = t + c 



(12) 



P = 



(b) The notations described below are used for the 
determining of pressure design of blind flanges: 

internal design gage pressure (see para. 
501.2.2), psig (kPa), or external design gage 
pressure (see para. 501.2.3), psi (kPa) 
applicable allowable stress in accordance with 
para. 502.3.1 and Table 502.3,1, ksi (MPa) 
sum of the corrosion and erosion allowances. 
in. (mm) 

pressure design thickness, in. (mm), as calcu- 
lated for the given closure shape and direction 
of pressure loading from the appropriate equa- 
tions and procedures in Section VIII, Division 
1, of the ASME BPV Code. (Certain symbols 
used in these equations, namely P and S, shall 
be considered to have the meanings described 
in this subparagraph instead of those given 
in the ASME BPV Code. All other symbols 
shall be as defined in the ASME BPV Code.) 
minimum required thickness, in. (mm), satis- 
fying requirements for pressure, mechanical, 
corrosion, and erosion allowances 

504.53 Blanks 

(a) The pressure design thickness of permanent 
blanks (see Fig. 504.5.3) shall be calculated in accor- 
dance with Eqs. (12) and (13). 






(13) 



(01) 



(01) 



(01) 



where 



31 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



504.5.3-505 



ASME B3L5a-2004 




FIG. 504.5.3 BLANKS 



P = internal design gage pressure (see para, 
501.2.2), psig (kPa), or external design gage 
pressure (see para. 501:2.3), psi (kPa) 
S = applicable allowable stress in accordance with 
para. 502.3.1 and Table 502.3.1, ksi (MPa) 

d g = inside diameter of gasket for raised or flat 
(plain) face flanges, or the gasket pitch diame- 
ter for retained gasketed flanges, in. (mm) 

(b) Blanks to be used for test purposes only shall 
be designed in accordance with Eq. (13), except that 
P shall be at least equal to the test pressure and S 
may be as great as 95% of the specified minimum 
yield strength of the blank material. (This applies only 
if the test fluid is incompressible.) 

(01) 504*6 Headers 

Headers used on heat transfer components shall be 
designed in accordance with para. 504.3 and/or shall 
meet the requirements of para. 504.7. 

(01) 504.7 Design of Other Pressure- Containing 
Components 

Other pressure-containing components manufactured 
in accordance with the standards listed in Table 526.1 
shall be considered suitable for use at the pressure- 
temperature ratings specified by such standards. 



Pressure-containing components not covered by the 
standards listed in Table 526.1 and for which design 
formulas or procedures are not given in this paragraph 
(para. 504), may be used where they have been proven 
satisfactory by successful performance under compara- 
ble service conditions. (Where such satisfactory service 
experience exists, interpolation may be made to other 
sized components with a geometrically similar shape.) 
In the absence of such service experience, the pressure 
design shall be based on an analysis consistent with 
the general design philosophy embodied in this Code 
Section and substantiated by at least one of the fol- 
lowing: 

(a) proof tests (as described in UG-101 of Section 
VIII, Division I, of the ASME BPV Code); 

(b) experimental stress analysis; and/or 

(c) for heat transfer components, proof test a sample 
at three times the design pressure of the component. 



PART 3 

DESIGN APPLICATION 

OF PIPING COMPONENTS 

SELECTION AND LIMITATIONS 



(01} 



505 PIPE 



32 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASME B31.5a-2004 



505.1-508.3 



(01) 505.1 General 

Pipe, tubes, and other materials conforming to the 
standards and specifications listed in Tables 502.3.1 
and 526.1 shall be used within the limitations of 
temperature and stress given in para. 502.3.1 and Table 
502,3.1 and within the additional limitations contained 
in this Code. 

{01) 505.1.1 Additional Limitations for Carbon Steel 

A04 Pipe. The wall thickness for refrigerant pipe sizes NFS 
6 (DN 150) and smaller shall be no less than Schedule 
40 (ASME B36.10), and for liquid refrigerants in Groups 
A2, A3, B2, and B3, pipe sizes smaller than NFS 2 
(DN 50) shall be no less than Schedule 80. 

ASTM A 53 Type F and API 5L A25 furnace butt 
welded pipe is permitted in service at temperatures 
between -~20°F (-29°C) and 366°F (186°C) and design 
pressure not exceeding 1 50 psig for use in heat transfer 
components and piping with water-based secondary 
coolants. The fluid handled must be nonflammable and 
nontoxic, 

505.1.2 Additional Limitations for Cast Iron Pipe. 
Cast iron pipe shall not be used for refrigerant service. 

(01) 505.1.3 Pressure Design of Other Piping Compo- 

nents. Pressure design of other piping components shall 
meet the requirements of para. 504.7. 

505.2 Nonferrous Pipe or Tube 

505.2.1 Copper, copper alloy, aluminum, or alumi- 
num alloy pipe and tube of any size may be used 
for any refrigerant service where compatible with the 
refrigerant used and when selected in accordance with 
the design rule in para. 504.1 and allowable stress 
values in Table 502.3.1. 

(01) 505.2.2 Soft annealed copper tubing larger than 1% 

in. (35 mm) O.D. shall not be used for field assembled 
refrigerant piping, unless it is protected from mechanical 
damage. 

506 FITTINGS, BENDS, AND INTERSECTIONS 

506.1 Fittings 

506.1.1 General. If fittings complying with applica- 
ble standards and specifications listed in Tables 523.1 
and 526.1 are used, they shall be used within the 
limitations specified in this Code. 

Other fittings, including those exceeding the range 
of sizes in the standards listed in Table 526.1, may- 



be used provided the designs meet the requirements in 
para. 504. 

506.1.2 Bel! and Spigot Fittings. Bell and spigot 
fittings shall not be used for refrigerant service. 

506.2 Bends and Intersections 

Bends, miters, and extruded branch connections may 
be used when they are designed in accordance with 
the principles in Chapter II, Part 2. 

506.3 Limitation on Materials for Fittings (01) 

Malleable iron and cast iron shall not be used in 
couplings or fittings for piping containing flammable 
or toxic fluids. 

507 VALVES 

(a) Valves complying with the standards listed in 
Table 526.1 may be used in accordance with the 
limitations listed in the specific standards and in this 
Code. 

(b) Refrigerant gate valves, ball valves, and plug 
cocks shall not be used in liquid refrigerant lines unless 
consideration is given to the expansion of liquid trapped 
in the valve cavities when the valve or cock is closed. 

508 FLANGES, BLANKS, FLANGE FACINGS, 
GASKETS, AND BOLTING 

508.1 Flanges 

508.1.1 General. If flanges complying with applica- 
ble standards and specifications listed in Tables 523.1 
and 526.1 are used, they shall be used within the 
limitations specified in this Code. 

Other flanges, including those exceeding the range 
of sizes in the standards listed in Table 526.1, may 
be used provided the designs meet the requirements 
of para. 504. 

508.1.2 Screwed Flanges. Screwed flanges are sub- 
ject to restrictions on threaded joints established in 
para. 514(e). 

508.2 Blanks 

Blanks shall conform to design requirements in para. 
504.5.3. 

508.3 Flange Facings (01) 

Flange facings complying with standards listed in 
Table 526.1 are suitable for use under this Code. Other 



33 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
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508.3-51.1.3.1 



ASME B31.5a-2004 



special facings may be used provided they meet the 
requirements of para. 504.7. 

Class 150 steel flanges may be bolted to cast iron 
valves, fittings, or other cast iron piping components 
having either Class 125 cast integral or screwed flanges. 
If such construction is used, it is preferred that the 
V ]6 in. (1.5 mm) raised face on steel flanges be removed. 
If the raised face is removed and a ring gasket extending 
to the inner edge of the bolt holes is used, or if the 
raised face is not removed, the bolting shall be carbon 
steel not stronger than ASTM A 307, Grade B. If a 
full-face gasket is used, the bolting may be alloy steel 
(ASTM A 193). 

Class 300 steel flanges may be bolted to cast iron 
valves, fittings, or other cast iron piping components 
having either Class 250 cast iron integral or screwed 
flanges, without any change in the raised face on either 
flange. If such construction is used, the bolting shall 
be carbon steel not stronger than ASTM A 307, Grade B. 

(01) 508.4 Gaskets 

Selection of suitable material for a given service is 
the responsibility of the user, and subject to any applica- 
ble code or jurisdictional regulation. The material se- 
lected shall be compatible with the fluid and suitable 
for the pressure-temperature conditions and shall meet 
the requirements of ASME B .16.20 or ASME B 16.21. 

508.5 Bolting 

508.5.1 General. If bolts, nuts, and washers comply- 
ing with applicable standards and specifications listed 
in Tables 523.1 and 526.1 are used, they shall be used 
within the limitations specified in this Code and shall 
also be subject to the requirements of Chapter III and 
paras. 508.3 and 508.5.2(a) and (b). 

508.5.2 Bolting for Cast Iron Flanges 

(a) Classes 25 and 125 cast iron integral or screwed 
companion flanges may be used with a full-face gasket 
or with a flat ring gasket extending to the inner edge 
of the bolts. When using a full-face gasket, the bolting 
may be alloy steel (ASTM A 193). When using a flat 
ring gasket, the bolting shall be of carbon steel equal 
to or less than ASTM A 307, Grade B. Materials other 
than carbon steels may be used provided the physical 
properties are equal to or less than the requirements 
of ASTM A 307, Grade B. 
(01) (b) When bolting together two Class 250 cast iron, 

integral, or screwed companion flanges having ] / 16 in, 
(1.5 mm) raised faces, the bolting shall be of carbon 
steel equal to or less than ASTM A 307, Grade B. 



Materials other than carbon steels may be used provided 
the physical properties are equal to or less than the 
requirements of ASTM A 307, Grade B. 

PART 4 

SELECTION AND 
LIMITATIONS OF PIPING JOINTS 



510 PIPING JOINTS 

510.1 General 

The type of piping joint used shall be suitable for the 
pressure-temperature conditions, and shall be selected 
giving consideration to joint tightness and mechanical 
strength under the service conditions (including thermal 
expansion and vibration) and to the nature of the fluid 
handled with respect to corrosion, erosion, flammability, 
and toxicity. 

The following limitations are in addition to applicable 
requirements in other portions of this Code Section. 

511 WELDED JOINTS 

511.1 General 

Welded joints may be used with any materials for 
which it is possible to qualify welding procedures, 
welders, and welding operators in conformance with 
Chapter V. 

511.2 Butt Welds 

Butt welds shall be made in accordance with the 
applicable requirements of Chapter V and para. 500. 
When backing rings are used in services where their 
use will result in severe corrosion or erosion, the 
backing ring should be removed and the internal joint 
ground smooth. In such services where it is impractical 
to remove the backing ring, consideration shall be 
given to welding the joint without backing rings, or 
consumable inserts may be used. 

511.3 Socket Welds 

511.3.1 Socket welds shall be made in accordance 
with the applicable requirements of Chapter V and 
para. 500. Dimensions of socket welding piping joints 
shall conform to ANSI B16.5 for flanges and ANSI 
B16.ll for fittings, and the weld dimensions shall be 
not less than the minimum dimensions shown in Figs. 
527.4.4-B and 527.4.4-C. 



34 



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ASME B31.5a-2004 521.3.1-521.3.5 

TABLE 521.3.1 MINIMUM SIZES OF STRAPS, RODS, AND CHAINS FOR HANGERS <od 



Nominal 
Pipe Size 
NPS(DN) 



Component 
(Steet) 



Minimum Stock Size, in. (mm) 



Exposed to Weather 



Protected From Weather 



1 and smaller 


Strap 


V s in. (3 mm) thick 


[1 in. (25 mm)] 






Above 1 


Strap 


V 4 in. (6 mm) thick 


Cl in. (25 mm)] 






2 and smaller 


Rod 


3 / 8 in. (10 mm) diameter 


C2 in. (50 mm)3 






Above 2 


Rod 


V 2 in. (13 mm) diameter 


[2 in. (50 mm)] 






2 and smaller 


Chain 


3 / 16 in. (5 mm) diameter or 


C2 in. (50 mm)] 




equivalent area 


Above 2 


Chain 


% in. (10 mm) diameter or 


[2 in. (50 mm)] 




equivalent area 


All sizes 


Bolted 


3 / 16 in. (5 mm) thick; bolts % in, 




clamps 


(10 mm) diameter 



V 16 in. (1.5 mm) thick x % in. 

(19 mm) wide 
% in. (3 mm) thick x i in. (25 

mm) wide 

% in. (10 mm) diameter 
V 2 in. (13 mm) diameter 

3 / 16 in. (5 mm) diameter or 

equivalent area 
% in. (10 mm) diameter or 

equivalent area 

3 / 16 in. (5 mm) thick; bolts % in. 
(10 mm) diameter 



GENERAL NOTE: For nonferrous materials, the minimum stock area shall be increased by the ratio of allowable 
stress of steel to the allowable stress of the nonferrous material. 



(d) At point, of support subject to horizontal move- 
ment, the movement shall be provided for by the swing 
of long hanger rods or chains or by the use of trolleys, 
rollers, sliding or swinging supports. 

(e) Covering on insulated piping shall be protected 
from damage at all hanger locations. Saddles, bases, 
or suitable shields properly constructed and secured to 
the covered pipe shall be used at points of roller, base, 
and trapeze support. 

(f) Lugs, plates, angle clips, etc., used as part of 
an assembly for the support or guiding of pipe may 
be welded directly to the pipe provided the material 
is of good weldable quality and the design is adequate 
for the load. Preheating, welding, and postheating shall 
be in accordance with the rules of Chapter V. 

(g) See MSS SP-58 for typical design details. 

5213.2 Spring Supports. Spring type supports shall 
be provided with means to prevent misalignment, buck- 
ling, or eccentric loading of the spring, and to prevent 
unintentional disengagement of the load. Materials shall 
be in accordance with the provisions of paras. 520.1.4 
and 520.1.5. Constant support spring hangers shall be 



designed to provide a substantially uniform supporting 
force throughout the range of travel. All spring elements 
shall be provided with means of adjustment for the 
pipe position in the operating and nonoperating condi- 
tion. Means shall be provided to prevent overstressing 
the spring due to excessive deflections. It is desirable 
that all spring hangers be provided with position indi- 
cators. 

521.3.3 Counterweights. Counterweights when used 
instead of spring hangers shall be provided with stops to 
prevent overtravel. Weights shall be positively secured. 
Chains, cables, hanger and rocker arm details, or other 
devices used to attach the counterweight load to the 
piping, shall be subject to requirements of para. 521.3.1. 

521.3.4 Hydraulic- Type Supports. An arrangement 
utilizing a constant hydraulic head may be installed to 
give a constant supporting effort. Safety devices and 
stops shall be provided to support the load in case of 
hydraulic failure. 

521.3.5 Sway Braces or Vibration Dampeners. 

Sway braces and vibration dampeners may be used to 
limit the movement of piping due to vibration. 



47 



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523-523.2.2 



ASME B3.1..5a-2004 



CHAPTER III 
MATERIALS 



523 MATERIALS — GENERAL 
REQUIREMENTS 

523.1 Acceptable Materials and Specifications 

The materials used shall conform to the specifications 
listed in Table 523.1 or shall meet the requirements 
of this Code for materials not so established. 

Reclaimed pipe and piping components may be used 
provided they are properly identified as conforming to 
a specification listed in Table 523.1 and otherwise meet 
applicable requirements of this Code. 



523 2 Limitations on Materials 

(01) 523.2.1 General. The materials listed in Table 

A04 502.3.1 shall not be used at design metal temperatures 
above those for which stress values are given in the 
Table. The materials shall not be used below the 
minimum temperature listed unless they meet the re- 
quirements of para. 523.2.2. 

(01) 523.2.2 Impact Tests. Materials subject to design 

metal temperatures below the minimum temperature 
listed in Table 502.3.1 and in (f)(5), except for those 
exempted in (f)(4) and (f)(5), shall be impact tested 
as required by UG-84 of Section VIII, Division 1. of 
the ASME BPV Code, with the following substitution 
for UG-84(b)(2). 

(a) A welded test section shall be prepared from a 
piece of plate, pipe, or tubing for each material spe- 
cification certified by the manufacturer in accordance 
with UG-84(e). 

(b) If the material to be used is not certified, test 
sections shall be prepared from each piece of pipe, 
plate, or tubing used. 

(c) One set of impact-test specimens shall be taken 
across the weld (the metal tested is the weld metal) 
with the notch in the weld, and one set shall be taken 
similarly with the notch at the fusion line (the metal 
tested is the base metal). 



(d) Impact test specimens shall be cooled to a temper- 
ature not higher than the lowest temperature to which 
the pipe, plate, or tubing may be subjected in its 
operating cycle. 

(e) One set of impact-test specimens with the notch (01) 
in the weld metal and one set with the notch at the 
fusion line, shall be made for each range of pipe 
thickness that does not vary by more than V 4 in. (6 
mm) over and under the tested thickness for each 
material specification used on the job. 

(f) The following materials are exempted from the 
requirements for impact testing. 

(1) Impact tests are not required for aluminum; 
Types 304 or CF8, 304L or CF3, 316 or CF8M, and 
321 austenitic stainless steel; copper; red brass; copper- 
nickel alloys; and nickel-copper alloys. 

(2) Impact tests are not required for bolting mate- 
rial conforming with A 193, Grade B7, for use at 
temperatures not lower than -55°F (-48°C). 

(3) Impact tests are not required for bolting materi- 
als conforming with A 320, Grades L7, L10, and 
L43, at temperatures above -150°F (-101°C) or above 
-225°F (-143°C) for A 320, Grade L9. 

(4) Impact tests are not required for ferrous materi- 
als used in fabricating a piping system for metal 
temperatures between -50°F (-46°C) and -150°F 
(-101 °C) provided the maximum circumferential or 
longitudinal tensile stress resulting from coincident pres- 
sure, thermal contraction, or bending between supports 
does not exceed 40% of the allowable stress for the 
materials as given in Table 502.3.1. See paras. 502.3.2, 
519, and 520. 

(5) Additionally, impact tests are not required (01) 
for ferrous materials used in fabrication for metal A04 
temperatures colder than -20°F (-29°C) and no colder 
than -55°F (-48°C) provided the minimum design 
metal temperature is above the allowable temperature 
determined from applying the temperature reduction 

due to the ratio from Fig. 523.2.2 to the listed minimum 
temperature in Table 502.3.1. For minimum temperature 
listings of "A" or "B," use the minimum temperature 
corresponding to the governing thickness shown in 
Table 523.2.2. 



(01) 
A04 

(01) 



(01) 



48 



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ASMEB31.5a-2004 



523.2.2-524.2 



The governing thickness applies when using Table 
523.2.2: 

(a) for a welded part is as follows: 

(J) for butt joints except those for flat heads, 
the nominal thickness of the thickest welded joint; 

(2) for comer or fillet welds, the thinner of 
the two parts joined; 

(3) for flat heads, the larger of para. 
523.2.2(f)(5)(a)(2) or the flat component thickness di- 
vided by 4: 

(4) for welded assemblies comprised of more 
than two components (e.g., branch-to-run pipe with 
reinforcing pad), the governing thickness and permissi- 
ble minimum design metal temperature of each of 
the individual welded joints of the assembly shall be 
determined, and the warmest of the minimum design 
metal temperatures shall be used as the permissible 
minimum design metal temperature of the welded as- 
sembly. 

(b) for nonwelded flat components is the flat 
component thickness divided by 4. 

A04 (6)(a) Impact tests are not required for the following 
flanges when used at minimum design metal tempera- 
tures no colder than -20°F (-29°C): 

(1) ASME B16.5 flanges of ferritic steel 

(2) ASME B 16.47 flanges of ferritic steel 

(3) split loose flanges of SA-216 Grade WCB 
when the outside diameter and bolting dimensions are 
either ASME B 1.6.5 Class 150 or Class 300, and the 
flange thicknesses are not greater than that of either 
ASME B16.5 Class 150 or Class 300, respectively. 

(6)(b) Impact tests are not required for the flanges 
listed in para. 523.2.2(6)(a) for metal temperatures 
colder than -20°F (-29°C) and no colder than -55 °F 
(-48 °C) provided the minimum design metal tempera- 
ture (MDMT) is above the allowable temperature deter- 
mined from applying the temperature reduction (Fig. 
523.2,2). The ratio used for determining the temperature 
reduction is defined as the design pressure at the MDMT 
to the maximum allowable pressure as permitted by 
ASME B16.5. 
(01) 523.2.3 Cast Iron and Malleable Iron. Cast iron 

and malleable iron shall not be used for piping compo- 
nents in hydrocarbon or other flammable fluid service 
at temperatures above 300°F (149°C), nor at gage 



pressures above 300 psi (2 070 kPa). Cast iron or 
malleable iron shall not be used at temperatures below 
-150°F (-101°C). 

523.2.4 Nodular Iron. Nodular iron shall not be (01) 
used for piping components at gage pressures above 
1,000 psi (6 895 kPa) or at temperatures below -150°F 

(-lore). 

523.2.5 Clad and Lined Materials. Clad and lined 
materials may be used in accordance with the applicable 
requirements in Part UCL of Section VIII, Division 1, 
of the ASME BPV Code. 

523.2.6 Nonmetallic Pressure Containing Compo- (01) 
nents. Nonmetallic pressure containing components, 
such as plastics, glass, carbon, nibber, or ceramics, 
may be used even if not specifically listed in this Code. 
Materials and methods in Chapter VIII of B3I.3 are 
acceptable. If stress data are not available for establish- 
ment of allowable stresses, the components may be 
qualified per para. 504.7. Consideration shall be given 

to the suitability of the material for the service tempera- 
ture, its resistance to deterioration from the service 
fluid or environment, its flammability, its resistance to 
shock, its creep, and its proper support and protection 
from mechanical damage. 

523.3 Deterioration of Materials in Service 

The selection of materials to resist deterioration in 
service is outside the scope of this Code. It is the 
responsibility of the engineer to select materials suitable 
for the conditions of operation. 

524 MATERIALS APPLIED TO 
MISCELLANEOUS PARTS 

524.1 Gaskets 

Limitations on gasket materials are covered in para. 
508.4. 

524.2 Bolting (01) 

Limitations on bolting materials are covered in paras. 
508.3, 508.5, and 523.2.2. 



49 



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rable 523.1 



ASME B3l.5a-2004 



(01) 



TABLE 523.1 ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS - SPECIFICATIONS 



Component 



Specification 



Material 



Solting 



Fittings, valves, flanges 



ASTM A 193 


ASTM A 194 


ASTM A 307 


ASTM A 320 


ASTM A 325 


ASTM A 354 


ASTM B 21 


ASTM B 98 


ASTM B 211 


ASTM A 47 


ASTM A 48 


ASTM A 105 


ASTM A 126 


ASTM A 181 


ASTM A 182 


ASTM A 197 


ASTM A 216 


ASTM A 217 


ASTM A 234 


ASTM A 278 


ASTM A 350 


ASTM A 351 


ASTM A 352 



ASTM A 395 



ASTM A 403 


ASTM A 420 


ASTM A 522 


ASTM A 536 


ASTM 


A 571 


ASTM A 743 


ASTM A 744 


ASTM 


B 16 


ASTM 


B 21 


ASTM 


B 26 


ASTM 


B 61 


ASTM 


B 62 


ASTM 


B 85 


ASTM 


B 124 


ASTM 


B 179 


ASTM 


B 247 


ASTM 


B 283 



Alloy steel and stainless steel bolting materials for high temperature service 
Carbon and alloy steel nuts for bolts for high pressure and high temperature 

service 
Carbon steel bolts and studs, 60 ksi (414 MPa) tensile 
Alloy steel bolting materials for low-temperature service 
Structured bolts, steel, heat treated, 120/105 ksi, min. tensile strength 
Quenched and tempered ailoy steel bolts, studs, and other externally threaded 

fasteners 
Naval brass rod, bar, and shapes 
Copper-silicon alloy rod, bar, and shapes 
Aluminum and aluminum alloy bar, rod, and wire 

Ferritic malleable iron castings 

Gray iron castings 

Forgings, carbon steei, for piping components 

Gray iron castings for valves, flanges, and pipe fittings 

Forgings, carbon steel for general purpose piping 

Forged or roiled alloy steel pipe flanges, forged fittings, and valves and part for 

high temperature service 
Cupola malleable iron 

Steel castings, carbon, suitable for fusion welding for high temperature service 
Steel castings, martensitic stainless and ailoy, for pressure containing parts 

suitable for high temperature service 
Piping fittings of wrought carbon steel and alloy steel for moderate and elevated 

temperatures 
Gray iron castings for pressure containing parts for temperatures up to 650°F 

(345°C) 
Forgings, carbon and low ahoy steel, requiring notch toughness testing for piping 

components 
Castings, austenitic, austenitic-ferritic (duplex) for pressure containing parts 
Steel castings, ferritic and martensitic, for pressure containing parts, suitable for 

low temperature service 
Ferritic ductile iron for pressure retaining castings for use at elevated 

temperatures 
Wrought austenitic stainless steei piping fittings 

Piping fittings of wrought carbon steel and alloy steel for low temperature service 
Forged or rolled 8% and 9% nicke! alloy steel flanges, fittings, valves, and parts 

for low temperature service 
Ductile iron castings 
Austenitic ductile iron castings for pressure-containing parts suitable for low 

temperature service 
Castings, iron-chromium, iron-chromium-nickel, and nickel base, corrosion 

resistant, for general application 
Castings, iron-chromium-nickel and nickel base, corrosion resistant, for severe 

service 
Free-cutting brass rod, bar, and shapes for use in screw machines 
Naval brass rod, bar, and shapes 
Aluminum alloy sand castings 
Steam or valve bronze castings 
Composition bronze or ounce metal castings 
Aluminum alloy die castings 

Copper and copper alloy forging rod, bar, and shapes 
Aluminum alloys in ingot form for sand castings, permanent mold castings, and 

die castings 
Aluminum and aluminum ailoy die forgings, hand forgings, and rolled ring 

forgings 
Copper and copper alloy die forgings (hot pressed) 



50 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. 



ASM£B31.5a-2004 



Table 523.1 



TABLE 523.1 ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS - SPECIFICATIONS (CONT'D) 



Component 



Specification 



Materia! 



(01) 
A04 



Fittings, valves, 

flanges 

(cont'd) 



Steel pipe 



Nonferrous pipe 



Steel tube 



Nonferrous tube 



ASTM B 361 

ASTM B 584 
A WW A C110 



ASTM A 53 

[Mote (1)] 
ASTM A 106 
ASTM A 134 
ASTM A 135 
ASTM A 139 
ASTM A 312 
ASTM A 333 
ASTM A 358 

ASTM A 376 
ASTM A 409 

ASTM A 587 
API 5L 

[Mote (1)] 

ASTM B 42 
ASTM B 43 
ASTM B 165 
ASTM B 241 
ASTM B 302 
ASTM B 315 
ASTM B 345 

ASTM B 466 
ASTM B 467 

ASTM A 178 
ASTM A 179 
ASTM A 192 
ASTM A 210 
ASTM A 213 

ASTM A 214 
ASTM A 226 

ASTM A 249 
ASTM A 254 
ASTM A 269 
ASTM A 271 
ASTM A 334 

ASTM B 68 
ASTM B 75 
ASTM B 88 
ASTM B 111 
ASTM B 165 
ASTM B 210 
ASTM 8 234 

ASTM B 280 
ASTM B 315 



Factory-made wrought aluminum and aluminum alloy welding fittings 

Copper alloy sand castings for genera! applications 

Gray iron and ductile iron fittings MPS 2 (DN 50) through IMPS 48 (DN 1200) 
for water and other liquids 

Pipe/ steel, black and hot dipped, zinc coated, welded and seamless 

Seamless carbon stee! pipe for high temperature service 

Pipe, steel electic-fusion (arc) welded [sizes MPS 16 (DN 400) and over] 

Electric-resistance welded steel pipe 

Electric-fusion (arc) welded steel pipe [sizes NPS 4 (DN 100) and over] 

Seamless and welded austenitic stainless stee! pipe 

Seamless and welded steel pipe for low tempeature service 

Electric-fusion welded austenitic chromium-nickel a!ioy steel pipe for high 

temperature service 
Seamless austenitic steel pipe for high-temperature central-station service 
Welded large outside diameter austenitic steel pipe for corrosive or high 

temperature service 
Electric resistance-welded low carbon steel pipe for the chemical industry 
Line Pipe 



Seamless copper pipe, standard sizes 

Seamless red brass pipe, standard sizes 

Nickel-copper alloy (UNS N04400) seamless pipe and tube 

Aluminum and aluminum alloy seamless pipe and seamless extruded tube 

Threadless copper pipe 

Seamless copper alloy pipe and tube 

Aluminum and aluminum alloy seamless pipe and seamless extruded tube for gas 

and oil transmission and distribution piping systems 
Seamless copper-nickel alloy pipe and tube 
Welded copper-nickel pipe 

Electric-resistance welded carbon steel boiler tubes 

Seamless cold-drawn low carbon steel heat exchanger and condenser tubes 

Seamless carbon steel boiler tubes for high pressure service 

Seamless medium-carbon steel boiler and superheater tubes 

Seamless ferritic and austenitic alloy steel boiler, superheater, and heat 

exchanger tubes 
Electric-resistance welded carbon steel heat exchanger and condenser tubes 
Electric-resistance welded carbon steel boiler and superheater tubes for high 

pressure service 
Welded austenitic steel boiler, superheater, heat exchanger and condenser tubes 
Copper brazed steel tubing 

Seamless and welded austenitic stainless steel tubing for general service 
Seamless austenitic chromium-nickel steel still tubes for refinery service 
Seamless and welded carbon and alloy steel tubes, for low temperature service 

Seamless copper tube, bright annealed 

Seamless copper tube 

Seamless copper water tube 

Copper and copper alloy seamless condenser tubes and ferule stock 

Nickel-copper alloy (UNS N 04400) seamless pipe and tube 

Aluminum alloy drawn seamless tubes 

Aluminum and aluminum alloy drawn seamless tubes for condensers and heat 

exchangers 
Seamless copper tube for air conditioning and refrigeration field service 
Seamless copper alloy pipe and tube 



51 



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Tabic 523/1 



ASME B31.5a-2004 



(01) 
A04 



TABLE 523.1 ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS - SPECIFICATIONS (CONT'D) 



Component 



Specification 



Material 



Nonferrous tube 
(cont'd) 

Steei plate 



Nonferrous piate 



Welding electrodes and 
rods for steel and iron 



Welding electrodes for 
nonferrous metals 



Solder and brazing 
metal 



Springs 
Chains 



Bars 



ASTM B 466 
ASTM B 743 

ASTM A 36 
ASTM A 240 

ASTM A 283 
ASTM A 285 
ASTM A 353 
ASTM A 414 
ASTM A 515 

ASTM A 516 
ASTM A 553 
ASTM A 1008 
ASTM A 1011 

ASTM B 96 

ASTM B 152 
ASTM B 171 

ASTM B 209 
ASTM B 248 



ASME SFA-5.1 or 

AWS A5.1 
ASME SFA-5.2 or 

AWS A5.2 
ASME SFA-5.4 or 

AWS A5.4 
ASME SFA-5.9 or 

AWS A5.9 

AWS A5.3 
ASME SFA-5.6 or 

AWS A5.6 
ASME SFA-5.7 or 

AWS A5.7 
ASME SFA-5.10 or 

AWS A5.10 
AWS A5.12 

ASTM B 32 
ASME SFA-5.8 or 
AWS A5.8 

ASTM A 125 

ASTM A 413 
ASTM A 466 
ASTM A 467 

ASTM A 663 
ASTM A 675 
ASTM B 221 



Seamless copper-nickel pipe and tube 
Seamless copper tube in coil 

Structural steel 

Heat-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel stainless steel plate, sheet, and 

strip for pressure essels 
Low and intermediate tensile strength carbon steel plates 
Pressure vesei plates, carbon steel, low and intermediate tensile strength 
Pressure vessel plates, alloy steel, 9% nickel, double-normalized and tempered 
Steel, sheet, carbon, for pressure vessels 
Pressure vessel plates, carbon steel, for intermediate- and higher-temperature 

service 
Pressure vessel plates, carbon steel, for moderate- and lower-temperature service 
Pressure vessel plates, alloy steel, quenched and tempered 8% and 9% nickel 
Steel sheet, carbon cold-roiled, structural quality 
Steel sheet and strip, carbon hot-rolled, structural quality 

Copper-silicon alloy plate, sheet, strip, and roiled bar for general purposes and 

pressure vessels 
Copper, sheet, strip, plate, and roiled bar 
Copper alloy plate and sheet for pressure vessels, condensers, and heat 

exchangers 
Aluminum and aluminum alloy sheet and piate 
General requirements for wrought copper and copper alloy plate, sheet, strip, and 

rolled bar 

Carbon steel electrodes for shielded metal arc welding 
Carbon and low alloy steel rods for oxyfuel gas welding 
Stainless steei electrodes for shielded metal arc welding 
Bars, strip, steel electrodes, and rods 

Aluminum and aluminum alloy covered arc welding electrodes 
Copper and copper alloy covered electrodes 

Copper and copper alloy bare welding rods & electrodes 

Bare aluminum and aluminum alloy welding electrodes and rods 

Tungsten for arc welding electrodes 

Solder metal 

Filler metals for brazing and braze welding 

Steel springs, helical, heat treated 

Carbon steel chain 
Weldless carbon steel chain 
Machine and boil chain 

Steei bars, carbon, merchant quality, mechanical properties 

Steel bars, carbon, hot wrought, special quality, mechanical properties 

Aluminum alloy extended bar, rod, wire, shapes, and tube 



(continued) 



52 



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No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME. ^£^ 



ASME B31.5a-2004 



Table 523.1, Table 523.2.2, Fig. 523.2.2 



TABLE 523.1 ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS - SPECIFICATIONS (CONT'D) 



(01) 
A04 



GENERAL NOTES: 

(a) For specific edition of specifications referred to in this Code/ see Appendix A and subsequent addenda. 

(b) Ail ASME SFA specifications appear in Section II, Part C, of the ASME BPV Code. 
NOTE: 

(1) For furnace butt weld pipe, see para. 505.1.1. 



(01) 



TABLE 523.2.2 IMPACT 
EXEMPTION TEMPERATURES 



Thickness, in. 



Curve A, °F 
[Note (1)] 



Curve B, °F 
[Note (2)] 



0.375 
0.4375 
0.5 
0.5625 

0.625 
0.6875 
0.75 
0.8125 

0.875 

0.9375 

1 



18 
25 
32 
37 

43 
48 
53 
57 

61 
65 



GENERAL NOTE: For other nominal thickness, see Curves A and B 

in Fig. UCS-66 in Section VIII, Div. 1, ASME BPV Code. 

NOTES: 

(l) Curve A. All carbon and low alloy pipe, tube, plates, valves, 
fittings, and flanges listed for minimum temperature as "A" in 
Table 502.3.1. Use the minimum temperature under Curve A 
corresponding to the nominal material thickness in Table 523.2.2. 
Curve B. Specifications are ASTM unless otherwise noted. Use 
the minimum temperature under Curve B corresponding to the 
nominal material thickness in Table 523.2.2 for: 



(2) 



(a) A 285 Grades A and B; 

(b) A 515 Grades 55 and 60; 

(c) A 516 Grades 65, and 70 (if not normalized); 

(d) API 5L Grades A25, A and B; 

(e) A 139 Grades A, B, and C; 

(f) A 135 Grades A and B; 

(g) A 53 Grades A and B; 
(h) A 106 Grades A and B; 
(i) A 134 Grade B; 

(j) A 234 Grade WPB; 

Ck) all materials of Curve A, if produced to fine grain practice 

and normalized; and 

(I) all other product forms such as pipe, tube, and fittings, except 

for bolting, plates, structural shapes, and bars. 



20 



30 



40 



20 


if) 


13 


0) 






7 


c 




t- 


- 1 


Q3 




JOl 




CO 




£ 


5 


O 


10 


< 

O 






15 


c 




o 


19 


W) 




c 




|2 




c 


23 


w 


27 


CD 
01 


31 


05 



0.8 



0.6 



S 0.2 



40 



60 



100 110 
°F 



FIG. 523.2.2 REDUCTION IN MINIMUM 

DESIGN METAL TEMPERATURE WITHOUT 

IMPACT TESTING 



(01) 



53 



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526-526.3 



ASME B31.5a-2004 



CHAPTER IV 
DIMENSIONAL REQUIREMENTS 



526 DIMENSIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR 

STANDARD AND NONSTANDARD PIPING 
COMPONENTS 

526.1 Standard Piping Components 

Dimensional standards for piping components are 
listed in Table 526.1. Also, certain material specifica- 
tions listed in Table 523.1 contain dimensional require- 
ments which are requirements of para. 526. Dimensions 
of piping components shall comply with these standards 
and specifications unless the provisions of para. 526.2 
are met. 



526.2 Nonstandard Piping Components 

The dimensions for nonstandard piping components 
shall, where possible, provide strength and performance 
equivalent to standard components, except as permitted 
under para. 504. For convenience, dimensions shall 
conform to those of comparable standard components. 

526.3 Threads 

The dimensions of all piping connection threads not 
otherwise covered by a governing component standard 
or specification shall conform to the requirements of 
applicable standards listed in Table 526.1. 



54 



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ASME B31.5a-2004 



527.3.5-527.43 



reinforcement to the run (header) shall also be a fillet 
weld with a minimum throat dimension of 0.5 t c . 

(e) When rings or saddles are used, a vent hole 
shall be provided (at the side and not at the crotch) 
in the ring or saddle to reveal leakage in the weld 
between branch and main run and to provide venting 
during welding and heat treating operations. Rings or 
saddles may be made in more than the one piece if 
the joints between the pieces have adequate strength 
and if each piece is provided with a vent hole. A good 
fit shall be provided between reinforcing rings or saddles 
and the parts to which they are attached. 

(01) 527.3.6 Welded Flat Plate Closures. Figures 

5 27. 3. 6- A and 527.3.6-B show acceptable and unaccept- 
able welds for flat plate closures in pipe. See para. 
504.4.2 for nomenclature. 

(01) 527.3.7 Heat Treatment for Welds. Heat treatment 
of welds shall be in accordance with para. 531. 

A04 527.4 Responsibility 

Each employer is responsible for 

(a) the welding and brazing performed by personnel 
of his organization; 

(b) conducting the qualification tests required to qual- 
ify the Welding Procedure Specifications (WPSs) and 
Brazing Procedure Specifications (BPSs) used by per- 
sonnel in his organization, except as provided in para. 
527.4.3; and 

(c) conducting the qualification tests required to qual- 
ify the welders and welding operators, except as pro- 
vided in para. 527.4.4. 

527.4.1 Qualification Requirements. WPSs and 

BPSs to be followed in production welding shall be 
prepared and qualified and welders, brazers, and opera- 
tors shall be qualified as required by Section IX of 
the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, except 
as modified in paras. 527.4.2, 527.4.3, and 527.4.4. 

527.4.2 Standard Welding Procedures. Standard 
Welding Procedure Specifications (SWPSs) published 
by the American Welding Society and listed in Appendix 
E of ASME Section IX are permitted within the limita- 
tions established by Article V of ASME Section IX. 
Before being used, the employer shall either qualify 
one welder following each SWPS or make demonstra- 
tion welds as provided by Section IX, Article V. 

527.4.3 Procedure Qualification by Others. In or- 
der to avoid duplication of effort and subject to the 
approval of the owner, WPSs and BPSs qualified by 



\W* 








O.lt min. 



GENERAL NOTE: Weld dimensions may be 
larger than the minimum values shown here. 

FIG. 527.3.5-D SOME ACCEPTABLE TYPES OF 
WELDED BRANCH ATTACHMENT DETAILS 
SHOWING MINIMUM ACCEPTABLE WELDS 



(01) 



61 



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527.4.3-527.4.4 



ASME B31.5a-2004 



45 deg min. 



45 deg min. 



2 '~ u. 



Greater of: 2 X required pipe thickness, 
or 1.25 X actual pipe thickness, but need 
not exceed required min. thickness of 
closure 



actual thickness 




J 

7 



45 deg min. 



Pipe may project beyond weld; 
closure may be beveled 
{45 deg max.) beyond weld 



GENERAL NOTE: For other acceptable welds, see ASME BPV Code, Section VIII, Division 1. 
For nomenclature see para. 504.4.2. 



(01) 
A04 



FIG. 527.3.6-A ACCEPTABLE WELDS FOR FLAT PLATE CLOSURES 



Incomplete penetration 




(01) 



FIG. 527.3.6-B UNACCEPTABLE WELDS FOR FLAT PLATE CLOSURES 



a technically competent group or agency may be used 
provided the following are met: 

(a) The WPS or BPS meet the requirements of 
ASME Section IX and any additional qualification 
requirements of this Code. 

(b) The employer has qualified at least one welder 
or welding operator following each WPS or BPS. 

(c) The employer's business name shall be shown 
on each WPS or BPS and on each qualification record. 
In addition, qualification records shall be signed and 
dated by the employer, thereby accepting responsibility 
for the qualifications performed by others. 

527.4.4 Performance Qualification by Others. In 

order to avoid duplication of effort and subject to the 
approval of the owner, an employer may accept the 
performance qualification of a welder, brazer, or opera- 



tor made by a previous employer. This acceptance is 
limited to performance qualifications that were made 
on pipe or tube test coupons. The new employer 
shall have the WPS or BPS that was followed during 
qualification or an equivalent WPS or BPS that is 
within the limits of the essential variables set forth 
in ASME Section IX. An employer accepting such 
qualification tests shall obtain a copy of the performance 
qualification test record from the previous employer. 
The record shall show the name of the employer by 
whom the welder, brazer, or operator was qualified 
and the date of that qualification. A record showing 
use of the process or processes from the date of the 
qualification as required by ASME Section IX, QW- 
322 or QB-322 shall be available. The new employer's 
business name shall be shown on the qualification 
record, and it shall be signed and dated by the employer, 



62 



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ASME B31.5a-2004 



527.4.4-528.4.1 



(01) 
A04 



thereby accepting responsibility for the qualifications 
performed by others. 



527.5 Qualification Records 

The employer shall maintain copies of the procedure 
and performance qualification records specified by 
ASME Section IX which shall be available to the 
owner or the owner's agent and the Inspector at the 
location where welding is being done. 

After completing a welded joint, the welder or weld- 
ing operator shall identify it as his or her work by 
applying his or her assigned letter, number, or symbol 
as a permanent record in a manner specified by his 
or her employer. 



(01) 527.6 Defect Repairs 

All defects in welds requiring repair shall be removed 
by flame or arc gouging, grinding, chipping, or machin- 
ing. All repair welds shall be preheated and postheated 
as originally required and the basic principles of the 
same welding procedure initially used shall be employed 
as far as applicable. This recognizes that the cavity of 
the weld may not be of the same contour or dimensions 
as the original joint. 

Preheating may be required on certain alloy materials 
of the air hardening type in order to prevent surface 
checking or cracking adjacent to the flame or arc 
gouged surface. 



528 BRAZING AND SOLDERING 

528.1 Brazing Materials 

(01) 528.1.1 Filler Metal. The filler metal used in brazing 

shall be a nonferrous metal or alloy having a melting 
point above 840°F (449°C) and below that of the metal 
being joined. The filler metal shall melt and flow freely 
with the desired temperature range and, in conjunction 
with a suitable flux or controlled atmosphere, shall wet 
and adhere to the surfaces to he joined. Brazing material 
containing other than residual phosphorous as an impu- 
rity is prohibited on joints made of ferrous materials. 

528.1.2 Flux. Fluxes that are fluid and chemically 
active at the brazing temperature shall be used when 
necessary to prevent oxidation of the filler metal and 
the surfaces to be joined and to promote free flowing 
of the filler metal. 



528.2 Brazing Preparation arid Procedures (01) 

528.2.1 Surface and Joint Preparation. The sur- (01) 
faces to be brazed shall be clean and free of grease, 
oxides, paint, scale, and dirt of any kind, except as noted 

in para. 528.2.5. Any suitable chemical or mechanical 
cleaning method may be used to provide a clean wettable 
surface for brazing. The procedure for joints covered 
in para. 517 shall be as outlined in the Copper Tube 
Handbook, published by the Copper Development Asso- 
ciation. 

528.2.2 Joint Clearance. The clearance between sur- (01) 
faces to be joined shall be not greater than 0.004 in. 

(0.1 mm) or a diametral clearance of 0.008 in. (0.2 mm). 

528.2.3 Heating. The joint shall be brought uni- 
formly to brazing temperature in as short a time as 
possible to minimize oxidation. 

528.2.4 Brazing Qualification. The qualification of (01) 
brazing procedures and brazing operators shall be in A04 
accordance with the requirements of Part QB, Section 

IX, ASME BPV Code. 



528.2.5 Oil. Oil used for lubrication during mechani- 
cal expansion of tubing in coils need not be removed 
provided that sample(s) used for procedure qualification 
were in a similar condition and that the requirements 
of para. 528.2.4 are met. 

528.3 Soldering Materials 

528.3.1 Solder. The solder metal used in soldering 
shall be a nonferrous metal or alloy having a solidus 
between 400°F (204°C) and 840°F (449°C) and below 
that of the metal being joined. The solder shall melt 
and flow freely within the desired temperature range 
and, in conjunction with a suitable flux, ASTM B 813, 
shall wet and adhere to the surface to be joined. 

528.3.2 Flux. Fluxes that are fluid, and chemically 
active at the soldering temperature shall be used to 
prevent oxidation of the solder or filler metal and the 
surfaces to be joined and to promote the free flowing 
of the solder. 

528.4 Soldering Preparation and Procedure 

528.4,1 Surface Preparation. The surfaces to be 
soldered shall be clean and free from grease, oxides, 
paint, scale, and dirt of any kind. Any suitable chemical 
or mechanical cleaning method may be used to provide 
a clean wettable surface for soldering. 



(01) 



(01) 



63 



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528.4.2-531.3.3 



ASME B31.5a-2004 



(01) 528.4.2 Joint Clearance. The average clearance be- 

tween surfaces to be joined shall be not greater than 
0.004 in. (0.1 mm), or a diametral clearance of 0.008 
in. (0.20 mm). 

528.4.3 Heating. The joint shall be brought to solder- 
ing temperature in as short a time as possible to 
minimize oxidation without localized underheating or 
overheating. 

(01) 528.4.4 Procedure. Solderers shall follow the proce- 

dure as outlined in ASTM B 828. 



529 BENDING — HOT AND COLD 

529.1 Radii of Bends 

Pipe and tube may be bent to any radius that will 
result in a bend surface free of cracks and substantially 
free of buckles. Out of the roundness and minimum 
finished thickness of bend shall be such that design 
requirements of para. 504 are met. This shall not prohibit 
the use of bends designed as creased or corrugated. 

529.2 Procedure 

Pipe and tube may be bent by any hot or cold 
method permissible by radii and material characteristics 
of the sizes being bent. Bending shall be done within 
a temperature range consistent with material characteris- 
tics and end use. Postheat treatment may be used to 
achieve this result. 

529.3 Heat Treatment 

Heat treatment shall be in accordance with paras. 
531.1, 531.3.2, 531.3.3, and 531.3.5. 



530 FORMING 

530.1 Procedure 

Piping components may be formed by any suitable 
method, including hot or cold pressing, rolling, forging, 
hammering, spinning, or drawing. Forming shall be 
done within a temperature range consistent with material 
characteristics and end use. Postheat treatment may be 
used to achieve this result. 

530.2 Heat Treatment 

Heat treatment shall be in accordance with paras. 
531.1, 531.3.2, 531.3.3, and 531.3.5. 



531 HEAT TREATMENT 

531.1 Heating and Cooling Method 

Heat treatment may be accomplished by a suitable 
heating method that will provide the required metal 
temperature, metal temperature uniformity, and tempera- 
ture control, such as an enclosed furnace, local fuel 
firing, electric resistance, or electric induction. Cooling 
may be accomplished in a furnace, in air, with the aid 
of local thermal control, with the application of heat 
or insulation, or in any other manner required to achieve 
the desired cooling rate. 

531.2 Preheating 

531.2.1 Unless otherwise specified in the qualified 
procedure specification, preheating for welds in materi- 
als shall be as stipulated in Table 531.2.1 (see Section 
IX, ASME BPV Code, for P-Numbers of materials). 

531.2.2 When welding dissimilar metals having 
different preheat requirements, the preheat temperature 
shall be that established in the welding procedure 
specification. 

531.2.3 The preheat temperature shall be checked 
by use of temperature indicating crayons, thermocouple 
pyrometers, or other suitable methods to assure that 
the required preheat temperature is obtained prior to 
and maintained during the welding operation. 

531.3 Postheat Treatment 

531.3.1 Unless other postheat treatment is stipulated 
in the welding procedure to meet the requirements of 
para. 531,3.2, postheat treatment for the welds (except 
seal welds of threaded joints for P-Nos. 1 and 3 
materials) shall be as stipulated in Table 531.2.1. Seal 
welds of threaded joints for P-Nos. 1 and 3 materials 
do not require postheat treatment. 

531.3.2 Postheat treatment shall be performed as 
necessary to restore physical property requirements 
(such as strength, ductility, and corrosion resistance, 
or a combination thereof) with respect to material 
design, and end use requirements. Physical property 
requirements shall determine the treatment to be per- 
formed, such as stress relief, anneal, or normalize. 

531.3.3 The heating method selected for restoration 
of physical properties desired for parts of any assembly 
shall be such as will accomplish this result without 
adversely affecting other components. Heating a fabri- 



64 



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Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
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Ill 



A4001A 



Copyright © 2005 by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 
No reproduction may be made of this material without written consent of ASME.